2015.3.13(ŒöŠJ), 2016.3.16(XV)

ƒ\ƒ“ƒKƒCŒęƒeƒLƒXƒgW ƒĀ”Å

Online Corpus of Songhyay Language (ver. ƒĀ)

˛‹vŠÔ@Š°

Yutaka SAKUMA

 

@–{Ž‘—ŋėŦŽŌ‚Ē2004`2007”N‚É‚Š‚¯‚ăjƒWƒF[ƒ‹‹¤˜a‘ŧ•”‚ōĖ˜^‚ĩ‚Ŋƒ\ƒ“ƒKƒCŒę‚É‚æ‚é”_‘ē•”Z–¯‚ĖŒę‚č‚đA“¯‘‹ŗˆįČ‚Ė’č‚ß‚éŗ‹L–@(Arrêté N‹02152/MEN/SPCNRE du 19 Octobre 1999 fixant l'orthographe de la langue SONAY-ZARMA)‚ÉŠî‚Âĸ‚Ä“]ŽĘ‚ĩA‰p–ķ‚¨‚æ‚Ņ–M–ķ‚đ•t‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ā‚Ė‚Å‚ˇB

@This is the corpus of Songhay (Zarma) language which I recorded in the rural area of western Niger from 2004 to 2007, transcribed by the official orthography (Arrêté N‹02152/MEN/SPCNRE du 19 Octobre 1999 fixant l'orthographe de la langue SONAY-ZARMA,) and translated into English and Japanese.

–ÚŽŸ contents

1.    ƒAƒ_ƒ€‚ĖŒę‚č(2007”N3ŒŽ11“ú) @Adamfs Remarks (March 11, 2007) 3

1-1.    ƒSƒ‹ƒjƒ‡Eƒn[ƒƒC‚ƃEƒ‹ƒtƒ@Eƒ{ƒŒƒC‚Ėe‘°ŠÖŒW@Family relationship between Gornyo haamey and Urufa borey. 3

1-2.    A–¯’nŠú‚ĖƒJƒ“ƒgƒ“’ˇˆĘ‘nŨ杁@Story of the creation of the canton chief during the colonial era  5

1-3.    ƒT[ƒoEƒe[ƒ‰‘ē‘nŨ杁@Story of the establishment of the village of Saaba-Tera. 14

1-4.    ƒT[ƒoEƒe[ƒ‰‘ē‘nŨ‚ĖŽžŠú‚ɂ‚ĸ‚ā@The time when the village of Saaba-Tera was established  18

1-5.    æ’…ŽŌ‚ƌ㒅ŽŌ‚đ‚ß‚Ž‚éŒę‚č@Remarks about those who came first and those who came later 21

1-6.    AHA‚Å‚¨‚ą‚éŒW‘ˆ‚ɂ‚ĸ‚ā@Regarding disputes at the irrigated farmland. 32

2.    ƒAƒuƒhƒDƒ‰ƒC‚ĖŒę‚č(2007”N3ŒŽ9“ú)@Abudullahifs Remarks (March 9, 2007) 38

2-1. A–¯’nŠú‚ĖŽņ’ˇˆĘ‘nŨ杁@Story of the creation of the chief during the colonial era. 38

3.    ƒAƒŠ‚ĖŒę‚č(2007”N1ŒŽ22“ú)@Alifs Remarks (January 22, 2007) 45

3-1.    AHA‰Ō“­ŠJŽnŒã‚ĖŒl”Č‹æ‚Ėķ‹ĩ@The situation in the irrigated farmland after it was put in operation  45

3-2.    ‘ã•\‰đ”C‘›“Ž‚đ‚ß‚Ž‚éŒę‚č @Remarks regarding the incident over delegatesf removal 49

3-3.    ‘ã•\‚ĖŒđ‘Ö‚Ė‰ß’ö‚Æ——R@The process and the reasons for the change of delegates 53

4.    ƒCƒXƒu‚ĖŒę‚č(2007”N2ŒŽ24“ú) @Isboufs Remarks (February 24, 2007) 67

4-1.    A–¯’nŠú‚ĖŽņ’ˇˆĘ‘nŨ杁@Story of the creation of the chief during the colonial era. 67

5.    ƒCƒXƒu‚ĖŒę‚č(2007”N2ŒŽ28“ú)  Isboufs Remarks (February 28, 2007) 84

5-1.    ƒT[ƒoEƒe[ƒ‰‘ē‘nŨ杇@@Story of the establishment of the village of Saaba-Tera I 84

5-2.    ƒT[ƒoEƒe[ƒ‰‘ē‘nŨ杇A@Story of the establishment of the village of Saaba-Tera II 106

6.    ƒXƒŒƒC‚ĖŒę‚č(2007”N2ŒŽ5“ú) Soureyfs Remarks (February 5, 2007) 119

6-1.    ‘ã•\‰đ”C‘›“Ž‚đ‚ß‚Ž‚éŒę‚č Remarks regarding the incident over delegatesf removal 119

7.    ƒZƒCƒu‚ĖŒę‚č(2007”N2ŒŽ10“ú) Seibfs Remarks (February 10, 2007) 123

7-1.    ‘ã•\‚É‚æ‚鐧Ų‘[’u‚Ɖņ”đ‘[’uSanctions and evasive measures used by the delegates 123

7-2.    ‘ã•\‚Ɛg“ā... 130

8.    ƒjƒFƒ“ƒhƒD‚ĖŒę‚č(2007”N1ŒŽ26“ú) Niyendofs Remarks (January 26, 2007) 136

8-1.    ‚Č‚ēƒCƒTEƒx[ƒOƒ“‚ĒŽņ’ˇ‚É‚Č‚Á‚Ŋ‚ŠWhy Isa Beegun became the chief 136

8-2.    ‚Č‚ēƒ{ƒ“ƒ_Eƒn[ƒƒC‚Ė‘cæ‚̓K[ƒƒRƒCƒŒ‚ɈڏZ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚Š Why the ancestors of Bonda-haamey moved to Gaarokoyre. 137

9.    ƒu[ƒo‚ĖŒę‚č(2006”N10ŒŽ30“ú) @Bubafs Remarks (October 30, 2006) 138

–Ŋ–ŧŽŽ‚É‚Č‚ŗ‚ę‚Ŋ’‰ŒžAdvice given to a young man at his babyfs naming ceremony. 138

9-1. 138

10.      ƒ}ƒnƒ}ƒhƒD‚ĖŒę‚č(2007”N2ŒŽ15“ú) @Mahamadoufs Remarks (February 15, 2007) 140

10-1.      ‹­§ˆÚZ‘›“Ž‚đ‚ß‚Ž‚éŒę‚čStory about the incident in which people were forced to move  140

10-2.      ‘ã•\‰đ”C‘›“Ž‚đ‚ß‚Ž‚éŒę‚čRemarks regarding the incident over delegatesf removal 151

10-3.      ƒT[ƒoEƒe[ƒ‰‘ē‘nŨ杇@ Story of the establishment of the village of Saaba-Tera I 153

10-4.      ƒT[ƒoEƒe[ƒ‰‘ē‘nŨ杇A Story of the establishment of the village of Saaba-Tera II 158

11.      ƒ}ƒ‰[ƒE‚ĖŒę‚č(2005”N11ŒŽ22“ú) Maraawfs remarks (November 22, 2005) 165

11-1.      W—Ž‚Ɛe‘° Settlements and families 165

11-2.      ƒSƒ‹ƒjƒ‡Eƒn[ƒƒC‚ɂ‚ĸ‚Ä‚ĖŒn•ˆŒę‚č@Remarks about Gornyo-haameyfs lineage  173

11-3.      Žņ’ˇˆĘ‚ĖŒpŗ‰ß’ö‡@ Succession of the position of chief I 183

11-4.      ‰‘ãŽņ’ˇƒCƒTEƒx[ƒOƒ“‚Æ“z—ꐧ‚ɂ‚ĸ‚Ä Regarding Isa Beegun, the first chief, and slavery  187

11-5.      ƒf[ƒTŽņ’ˇ‚ƃSƒ‹ƒjƒ‡Eƒn[ƒƒC‚Ėe‘°ŠÖŒW The family relationship between the chief of Dessa and Gornyo-haamey. 189

11-6.      Žņ’ˇˆĘ‚ĖŒpŗ‰ß’ö‡A Succession of the position of chief II 193

11-7.      ƒNƒ‹ƒeƒC‚Ė‹NŒšEˆÚZ‰ß’ö‚ɂ‚ĸ‚Ä The origins of the Kurtey and their migration process 195

12.      ƒ€[ƒT‚ĖŒę‚č(2007”N2ŒŽ8“ú)  Musafs remarks (February 8, 2007) 201

12-1.      —Į‚ĸ‘ã•\‚ƈĢ‚ĸ‘ã•\‡@ Good delegates and bad delegates I 201

12-2.      ‘ã•\‚É‚æ‚鐧Ų‘[’u‚Ɖņ”đ‘[’u Sanctions and evasive measures used by the delegates 202

12-3.      –TŠĪŽŌ‚É‚æ‚é‘ã•\‰đ”C‘›“Ž‚ĖŒę‚č An onlookerfs remarks regarding delegatesf removal 209

12-4.      ‘ã•\Œđ‘Ö‚Ė•û–@ The way of replacing delegates 217

12-5.      ‘ã•\Œđ‘Ö‚Ė‰ß’ö The process of replacing delegates 222

12-6.      —Į‚ĸ‘ã•\‚ƈĢ‚ĸ‘ã•\‡A Good delegates and bad delegates II 230

12-7.      —אڂˇ‚éŒl”Č‹æ‚ōkė‚đ‚¨‚ą‚Č‚¤ŽŌ“¯Žm‚ĖÕ“ËThe conflict between those who cultivated plots next to each other 231

13.      ƒ‚[ƒ‹‚ĖŒę‚č(2006”N10ŒŽ28“ú) Morfs Remarks (October 28, 2006) 232

13-1.      ƒ{ƒ“ƒ_Eƒn[ƒƒC‚ĒƒEƒHƒS‚ž‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤”­Œž‚ɑ΂ˇ‚鉞“šMorfs response to a remark that Bonda-haamey are Wogos 232

—pŒęW@(50‰š‡) 234

 

 

 

1.      ƒAƒ_ƒ€‚ĖŒę‚č(2007”N3ŒŽ11“ú) @Adamfs Remarks (March 11, 2007)

1-1.  ƒSƒ‹ƒjƒ‡Eƒn[ƒƒC‚ƃEƒ‹ƒtƒ@Eƒ{ƒŒƒC‚Ėe‘°ŠÖŒW@Family relationship between Gornyo haamey and Urufa borey

@Koyra wo kaŋ ni ga di, dumi hinka ka go calla. Wey gey ti car ɲayze kaŋ ize a ma hiiji, i hay calla, kaŋ ti, ni di, Gorɲo wo da Urufa, gey no calla. Oho. Sohoŋ wey yoŋ kul, waati kul kaŋ se na Gorɲo wo cendi, hal baabo here man ka ka huro Urufa ra, kul ɲoŋo here ga ka ka huro Urufa ra. Ya da ir go ma goro da. Oho

 Two dumis are living together in this settlement [Saaba] that you are looking at. People in these dumis have their children marry each other, who then have their own children, so they are relatives. You see? Itfs Gornyo [haamey] and Urufa [borey]. They coexist. Hmm. From our Gornyofs perspective, itfs always been true that if the fatherfs side did not come from Urufa, the motherfs side came from Urufa. Thatfs how we do it. Hmm.

@‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚ĒŒŠ‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚ą‚ĖW—ŽkƒT[ƒol‚ɂ́A2‚‚ĖƒhƒDƒ~‚Ē‚Æ‚ā‚É‚ ‚éB‘o•û‚ÍŽq‚đŒ‹Ĩ‚ŗ‚š‚ ‚ĸAŽq‚đŽY‚Ũ‚ ‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚āAeĘ‚Į‚¤‚ĩ‚Č‚Ė‚ž‚ĒA‚ĸ‚ĸ‚ˁA‚ģ‚ę‚Ē‚ą‚ĖƒSƒ‹ƒjƒ‡kEƒn[ƒƒCl‚ƃEƒ‹ƒtƒ@kEƒ{ƒŒƒCl‚žA‚ģ‚ę‚į‚Ē‚Æ‚ā‚É‚ ‚é‚Ė‚žB‚¤‚ŪBŒģŨ‚ą‚ę‚į‚Í‚ˇ‚ׂāA‚ĸ‚‚ž‚Á‚āA‚ą‚ĖƒSƒ‹ƒjƒ‡‚Ė‘¤‚Š‚į‚ˇ‚é‚ƁA•ƒ•û‚ĒƒEƒ‹ƒtƒ@‚Š‚į“ü‚č‚É—ˆ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚Å‚Č‚¯‚ę‚΁A‚ˇ‚Č‚í‚ŋ•ę•û‚ĒƒEƒ‹ƒtƒ@‚Š‚į“ü‚č‚É—ˆ‚Ŋ‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ą‚Æ‚žB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‚ą‚Ė‚悤‚É‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĸ‚éB‚¤‚ŪB

@Zama i kaaga woyo, Urufa wo kaaga woyo, Gorɲo no. Oho. Gorɲo g i hun, i ka ka te Urufa-boro wo. Ni di wala? Sohoŋ in d'ey ir te cer se kal weyize da ariize, ir kaagey te ya-cine no. Boro kul si Urufa da kaŋ ga kabe sambu, kaŋ n i kaaga woyo manti Gorɲo ga no hun. Oho. Zama i si ne kal Zara Gorɲo, Tikkaŋ Gorɲo. Gorɲo izey ne. Zara a ka ka hay Urufa wo ga. Urufa wo ra ka gorokasiney da Zara, a ka ka nga go izey wey hay, kaŋ ti Almokutaar. To, ir mey kambo ne, ir mey ne Beegun haamey. Ya-cine no. Amma ir kul kaaga holloŋ ka izey no. Oho. Da ɲoŋo man ka Urufa, baabo ga ka. Wal borey wey mey, da ɲoŋo man ka Urufa, Gorɲo ga, baabo ga ka Gorɲo ga. Soohoŋ ya da in d'ey wey, in na melanji calla. Oho. Da ni koy ir guna, ya d ir go da. Ikkul kaayi folloŋ ka izey no. Ayyo! Amma ir gonda naŋ k ir ga fey. Oho, ya d ir go da. Ni faham wala?

This is because their female ancestor, Urufafs female ancestor, is Gornyo. Hmm. They left Gornyo to establish this Urufa Boro. You see? Now, that makes us male descendants and female descendants. Itfs our ancestors who started this system. There is no descendant of Urufafs who doesnft have Gornyo haamey as their female ancestors. Hmm. Thatfs because they [the female ancestors] are Zara Gornyo and Tikkan Gornyo, who are Gornyofs children. Gornyofs descendants are over here, and Urufafs descendants are over there. Zara went to Urufa to have children. Then the one who became Zarafs spouse and had many children with her was Almokhtar. Now, our root is here, and we, Begumfs descendants, are here. Thatfs how it is. But we are all descendants of a common ancestor. Hmm. If the mother did not come from Urufa, the father did. Or from their perspective, if the mother did not come from Urufa . . . Gornyo, the father came from Gornyo. Thatfs how we are all mixed now. Hmm. You came to see how we do it. This is how we do it. We are all descendants of a common ancestor. Thatfs right. But we live separately. Hmm. Thatfs how we do it. You understand?

[Later part omitted]

@‚Č‚ē‚Č‚į”Ū‚į‚Ė—‘cA”Ū‚įƒEƒ‹ƒtƒ@‚Ė—‘c‚́AƒSƒ‹ƒjƒ‡‚ž‚Š‚į‚žB‚¤‚ŪB”Ū‚į‚̓Sƒ‹ƒjƒ‡‚Š‚į—Ŗ‚ęA‚ą‚ĖƒEƒ‹ƒtƒ@Eƒ{ƒ‚đ‚‚­‚č‚É—ˆ‚ŊB‚í‚Š‚é‚Š‚ˁB‚ŗ‚āA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚́A‚Ŋ‚Ē‚ĸ‚É’j‚ĖŽq‘ˇ‚Ə—‚ĖŽq‘ˇ‚É‚ ‚Ŋ‚é‚Ė‚ž‚ĒA‚ģ‚Ė‚悤‚É‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚́A‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘cæ‚žBƒEƒ‹ƒtƒ@‚Ė˜r‚đ‚Æ‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚Ė‚ɁA‚ģ‚Ė—‘c‚ĒƒSƒ‹ƒjƒ‡Eƒn[ƒƒC‚Š‚į”­‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĸ‚Č‚ĸŽŌ‚Í‚ĸ‚Č‚ĸB‚¤‚ŪB‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚Ė‚āA”Ū—‚įk—‘cl‚́AƒU[ƒ‰EƒSƒ‹ƒjƒ‡‚ƃeƒBƒbƒJƒ“EƒSƒ‹ƒjƒ‡‚ÆŒž‚¤‚Š‚į‚žB‚‚܂čƒSƒ‹ƒjƒ‡‚ĖŽq‚žBƒSƒ‹ƒjƒ‡‚ĖŽq‘ˇ‚Ē‚ą‚ŋ‚į‚É‚ĸ‚āAƒEƒ‹ƒtƒ@‚ĖŽq‘ˇ‚Ē‚ ‚ŋ‚į‚É‚ĸ‚éBƒU[ƒ‰‚́A‚ą‚ĖƒEƒ‹ƒtƒ@‚Ė‚ā‚Æ‚ÖŽY‚Ũ‚É—ˆ‚ŊB‚ą‚ĖƒEƒ‹ƒtƒ@‚Ė‚Č‚Š‚ŃU[ƒ‰‚Ė”ē—ĩ‚Æ‚Č‚čA‚Ŋ‚­‚ŗ‚ņ‚ĖŽq‚đŽY‚ņ‚ž‚Ė‚ĒAƒAƒ‹ƒ‚ƒNƒ^[ƒ‹‚žB‚ŗ‚āA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋŽŠg‚Ė˜r‚Ē‚ą‚ŋ‚į‚É‚ ‚éA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋƒx[ƒOƒ“‚ĖŽq‘ˇ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ē‚ą‚ą‚É‚ĸ‚éB‚ą‚¤‚Č‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚Ė‚žB‚ĩ‚Š‚ĩ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‚Ũ‚ȁA‘cæ‚đ‚Đ‚Æ‚Â‚É‚ˇ‚éŽq‘ˇ‚žB‚¤‚ŪB•ęe‚ĒƒEƒ‹ƒtƒ@‚Š‚į—ˆ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚Å‚Č‚¯‚ę‚΁A•ƒe‚Ē‚ģ‚ą‚Š‚į—ˆ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚žB‚ ‚é‚ĸ‚́A‚ ‚ŋ‚į‚ĖlŠÔ‚Ė‘¤‚Š‚į‚ˇ‚é‚ƁA‚ā‚ĩ•ęe‚ĒƒEƒ‹ƒtƒ@cAƒSƒ‹ƒjƒ‡‚Š‚į—ˆ‚ŊŽŌ‚Å‚Č‚Š‚Á‚Ŋ‚įA•ƒe‚ĒƒSƒ‹ƒjƒ‡‚Š‚į—ˆ‚ŊŽŌ‚žB‚ą‚¤‚ĩ‚Ä‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‚ĸ‚Ü‚âAŦ‚´‚č‚ ‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚éB‚¤‚ŪB‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ē‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚đŒŠ‚É‚Ģ‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚Ė‚Č‚įA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‚ą‚Ė‚悤‚É‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚Ė‚žB‚ˇ‚ׂđcæ‚đ‚Đ‚Æ‚Â‚É‚ˇ‚éŽq‘ˇ‚žB‚ģ‚¤‚Č‚Ė‚žB‚ĩ‚Š‚ĩ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚͕ʁX‚É‚Č‚éęŠ‚đ‚ā‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚éB‚¤‚ŪB‚ą‚Ė‚悤‚É‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚Ė‚žB‚í‚Š‚é‚ˁB

kŒã—Ēl[Later part omitted]

 

1-2.  A–¯’nŠú‚ĖƒJƒ“ƒgƒ“’ˇˆĘ‘nŨ杁@Story of the creation of the canton chief during the colonial era

k‘O—Ēl[Earlier part omitted]

\\        Amma Deesa bonkoyni da Gorɲo-haamey ikkul kaaga folloŋ?

Do the chief of Dessa and Gornyo haamey share a common ancestor?

               ‚ĩ‚Š‚ĩƒf[ƒT‚ĖŽņ’ˇ‚ƃSƒ‹ƒjƒ‡Eƒn[ƒƒC‚́A‘cæ‚đ‚Đ‚Æ‚Â‚É‚ˇ‚é‚Ė‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)[1]          Deesa Bonkoyni? Deesa Bonkoyni da Gorɲo-haamey? I manti kaaga fo. I kaaga go waani, ir kaaga go waani. Oho. Ir manti kaaga fo. Oho

The chief of Dessa, huh? The chief of Dessa and Gornyo haamey. They do not share a common ancestor. Their ancestor and our ancestor are different. Hmm. We do not share a common ancestor. Hmm.

               ƒf[ƒT‚ĖŽņ’ˇ‚ŠBƒf[ƒT‚ĖŽņ’ˇ‚ƃSƒ‹ƒjƒ‡Eƒn[ƒƒC‚ŠB‘cæ‚Í‚Đ‚Æ‚Â‚Å‚Í‚Č‚ĸB”Ū‚į‚Ė‘cæ‚Æ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘cæ‚Í‚ŋ‚Ē‚¤B‚¤‚ŪB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‘cæ‚Ē‚Đ‚Æ‚Â‚Å‚Í‚Č‚ĸB‚¤‚ŪB

\\        Isa ga jin..., a'a, Gorɲo-haamey borey yoŋ no ga jin ka ka ne da, wala Deesa borey no ka jin ka ka?

               Did Isa first . . . I mean, did the people of Gornyo haamey come first? Or did the people of Dessa come first?

               ƒCƒT‚Ēæ‚ɁcA‚ĸ‚âAƒSƒ‹ƒjƒ‡Eƒn[ƒƒC‚Ėl‚Ņ‚Æ‚Ēæ‚É—ˆ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠA‚ģ‚ę‚Æ‚āƒf[ƒT‚Ėl‚Ņ‚Æ‚Ēæ‚É—ˆ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           Wallaahi, Deesa borey ka, ir woney ka, ir jin ka ka. Ir woney kaayoŋo wo Deesa ka, ir borey ka. Toomare ka. Koyre hinza wo kul boro kul man cer jin ka ka labo wo ra. Ayyo.

Wallahi. The people of Dessa came, our people came, we came first. Our ancestor came when the people of Dessa came, and our people came. People of Tomare came. People of all three villages [came around the same time]. No one had come to this land [before the settlement of these three villages]. Right.

               ƒƒbƒ‰[ƒqAƒf[ƒT‚ĖlŠÔ‚Ē—ˆ‚āA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ĖlŠÔ‚Ē—ˆ‚āA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ē‘O‚É—ˆ‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘cæ‚Ē—ˆ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚́Aƒf[ƒT‚Ē—ˆ‚āA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ėl‚Ņ‚Æ‚Ē—ˆ‚ŊBƒg[ƒ}ƒŒ‚Ē—ˆ‚ŊB‚ą‚ę‚į3‚‚Ė‘ē‘S•”k‚Ē“¯ŽžŠú‚É—ˆ‚ŊlB’N‚āk‚ą‚Ė3‘ē‚æ‚č‘O‚Ɂl‚ą‚Ė“y’n‚É—ˆ‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB‚ģ‚¤‚žB

               Zama annasaarey bumbo gey meytaara kaŋ naŋ no Deesa se, koyre hinka kaŋ dukkuri wo-din se. Kaŋ naŋ Deesa du ka gey mey, Toomare dukkuri a se, kaŋ ga naŋ Deesa wo borey du ka gey mey. I ma wo doro.

Because whites gave control to Dessa, people of the other two villages got angry. People of Tomare got angry at the fact that Dessa has gained control over them, at the fact that that Dessa had gained the authority to control people. They felt pain for this fact.

               ‚Č‚ē‚Č‚į”’l‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁAŽx”z‚đƒf[ƒT‚É—^‚Ļ‚Ä‚ĩ‚Ü‚Á‚Ŋ‚Ė‚ŁA‚ģ‚ę‚Å2‚‚Ė‘ē‚Í“{‚Á‚ŊBƒf[ƒT‚Ē”Ū‚į‚đŽx”z‚ˇ‚é‚悤‚É‚Č‚Á‚Ŋ‚ą‚ƂɁAƒg[ƒ}ƒŒ‚Í“{‚Á‚ŊB‚ ‚Ėƒf[ƒT‚Ēl‚Ņ‚Æ‚đ‚Ļ‚āAŽx”z‚ˇ‚é‚ą‚ƂɁB”Ū‚į‚Í‚ą‚Ė‚ą‚Æ‚É’É‚Ũ‚đ‚¨‚Ú‚Ļ‚ŊB

Ir mey wono, annasaara wo Isa Beegun wo, annsaara tuba ga ka a kat'a. A ne a ma ka ne da. Annasaarey ka ne da ka i na ka gey waatey te, i hoy, de ir kaaga naŋ ga mo go baro ra, i ne a se a ma ka. A tuba din manti kal Fonbita boro no. I ga ne a se Ali, Ali Kara. Ga ka koy kate annasaarey za Banjagara, ni ma, a koy sambu kal a kate. I ne a se : áHeey! Ma bey da ni koy i naŋ ga n wi. Ni si koyâ. Tuba mo gen da annasaarey no, tuba mo ne, wallaahi d i naŋ ga wi, ga si kate boro kaŋ ga a wi. A ma ka de, annasaarey gen d'ey ma waafaku. I ne a se : áNi si koy, ma bey da ni koy i naŋ ga n wiâ.

As for our ancestor, the whites . . . the whites were brought here by Isa Begumfs maternal nephew. The whites came here, spent the morning and the afternoon, and told our ancestor, who was on the island, to come. His [Isa Begumfs] maternal nephew was from Fombita, and his name was Ali, Ali Kara. He brought the whites in Bandiagara here. You got that? He brought them here. People said, eHey, you will get killed if you go there. Donft go.f The nephew was with the whites and said, eYoufre definitely(Wallahi) not going to get killed. I would not bring someone who would kill people. Just come over here and ally with whites.f They [the people] said to him [Isa Begum], eDonft go. You will get killed if you do.f

‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘cæ‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁA‚ģ‚Ė”’l‚́cAƒCƒTEƒx[ƒOƒ“‚Ė•ę•ûƒIƒC‚É”’l‚͘A‚ę‚į‚ę‚Ä—ˆ‚ŊB”’l‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‚ą‚ą‚É—ˆ‚āAŒß‘O’†‚đ‚ˇ‚˛‚ĩAŒßŒã‚đ‚ˇ‚˛‚ĩA‚ģ‚ĩ‚Ä“‡‚É‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘cæ‚É—ˆ‚ĸ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB”ŪkƒCƒTEƒx[ƒOƒ“l‚Ė•ę•ûƒIƒC‚̓tƒHƒ“ƒrƒ^‚ĖlŠÔ‚ŁA–ŧ‚đƒAƒŠAƒAƒŠEƒJƒ‰‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚ģ‚Ė”Ū‚Ēƒoƒ“ƒWƒƒƒKƒ‰‚É‚ĸ‚Ŋ”’l‚đ˜A‚ę‚Ä—ˆ‚ŊA‚ĸ‚ĸ‚ˁA”Ū‚Ē˜A‚ę‚Ä—ˆ‚ŊBl‚Ņ‚Ƃ́u‚¨‚¨‚ĸBs‚Á‚Ŋ‚įŽE‚ŗ‚ę‚é‚ŧBs‚­‚ȁv‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊBƒIƒC‚Í”’l‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Æˆę‚É‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚ž‚ĒA”Ū‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁAâ‘΂É(ƒƒbƒ‰[ƒq)ŽE‚ŗ‚ę‚é‚ā‚Ė‚ŠA”Ū‚͐lŽE‚ĩ‚đ‚ˇ‚é‚悤‚ȐlŠÔ‚đ˜A‚ę‚Ä—ˆ‚Č‚ĸA‚ĸ‚ĸ‚Š‚į—ˆ‚āA”’l‚Æ“¯–ŋ‚ĩ‚悤‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB”Ū‚įkl‚Ņ‚Ɓl‚Í”ŪkƒCƒTEƒx[ƒOƒ“l‚ɁAus‚­‚ȁAs‚Á‚Ŋ‚įŽE‚ŗ‚ę‚é‚ŧv‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB

Ni di wala? Heri kul se annasarey man te i se. Ha kaŋ ga naŋ de a ma ka. Tuba mo kookari. Sohoŋ ke, a hambur koyyoŋo. áDa ni koy, waat in i naŋ ga n wiâ. Heri kul si tubaa man te, a man koy. I di ga goro no-din ga mo, i di ga kala heri kaŋ ga naŋ de i ma ka. I ne : áSukkara yoŋ kaâ. Kaŋ borey si bey mo heri kaŋ ti sukkara. I ne : áNi ma koy no i seâ. I ne : áTaba ka maâ. I man yedda. I ne a se : áDa ni koy, ma bey, borey din, ga boro cirey fo yoŋ no, a heri dumbiyo fo go i seâ. Amma gey si bey heri kaŋ ti wo-din. Sohoŋ ke hamburey furo a se.

You see? The whites didnft do anything to them except telling them to go over there, and the nephew tried to help, too. But at this time, he [Isa Begum] was afraid to go. eYou will get killed.f The nephew was safe, but he [Isa Begum] didnft go. They [whites], too, figured he [Isa Begum] would not move, so they tried to force him to go there. They said, eHere is sugar,f although the people didnft know what sugar was. They said, eGo over there and give some to everyone.f They then said, eGo ahead and lick it.f They [the people around Isa Begum] did not comply. They said to him [Isa Begum], eYou must not go. All right? They are red men.f They have something thin and long in their hands.f But they didnft know what it was. At this point, he [Isa Begum] started to fear.

‚í‚Š‚é‚ˁB”’l‚Í”Ū‚į‚ɉŊ‚ā‚š‚¸A‚Ŋ‚ž—ˆ‚ĸ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚Ŋ‚ž‚¯‚ž‚ĩA•ę•ûƒIƒC‚ā“w—Í‚ĩ‚ŊB‚ž‚Ē‚ā‚¤”ŪkƒCƒTEƒx[ƒOƒ“l‚͍s‚­‚ą‚Æ‚đ‹°‚ę‚ŊBus‚Á‚Ŋ‚įAŽE‚ŗ‚ę‚é‚ŧvBƒIƒC‚͉Ŋ‚ā‚ŗ‚ę‚Č‚Š‚Á‚Ŋ‚ĒA”ŪkƒCƒTEƒx[ƒOƒ“l‚͍s‚Š‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB”Ū‚įk”’l‚Ŋ‚ŋl‚ā”ŪkƒCƒTEƒx[ƒOƒ“l‚Ē‚ģ‚ą‚Š‚į“Ž‚Š‚Č‚ĸ‚Æ‚í‚Š‚čA‚Č‚ņ‚Æ‚Š”Ū‚đ—ˆ‚ŗ‚š‚悤‚Æ‚ĩ‚ŊB”Ū‚į‚́uģ“œ‚Ē—ˆ‚Ŋ‚ŧv‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊBl‚Ņ‚Ƃ͍ģ“œ‚Ē‰Ŋ‚Š‚đ’m‚į‚Č‚ĸ‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚Ė‚É‚žB”Ū‚į‚́Aus‚Á‚Ä‚Ũ‚Č‚É—^‚Ļ‚ëv‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊBu‚Č‚ß‚Ä‚Ũ‚ëv‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB”Ū‚įkƒCƒTEƒx[ƒOƒ“‚ĖŽüˆÍ‚Ėl‚Ņ‚Ɓl‚͏ŗ‘ø‚ĩ‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB”ŪkƒCƒTEƒx[ƒOƒ“l‚ɁAus‚Á‚Ä‚Í‚ĸ‚¯‚Č‚ĸ‚ŧA‚ĸ‚ĸ‚ŠA‚ ‚ĸ‚‚į‚͐Ԃĸl‚ž‚ŧA‰Ŋ‚Š‚Š×’ˇ‚ĸ‚ā‚Ė‚đ‚ā‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚ŧv‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚Ŋ‚ž‚ĩ”Ū‚į‚Í‚ģ‚ę‚Ē‰Ŋ‚Š‚đ’m‚į‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB‚ĸ‚Ü‚âA”ŪkƒCƒTEƒx[ƒOƒ“l‚É‹°•|‚Ē“ü‚č‚ą‚ņ‚žB

Gey mey da a si ka, i na i hamburandi. Zama malfa kuuro, waat in i na powo din te, borey naŋ ga malfa bey? I sobey ka kaŋ isaa ra ka koy do ka bere ka kooy, koy du Fuliyande yoŋ, jerey yoole isa wo ra. I ye ka koy Fuliyande.

They [whites] tried to threaten them for not going over there. The people heard the crack of a gun. I bet you they did not know what a gun was. One after another, people fell into the river and drifted far away. In spite of that, some of them managed to come back to the Fuliyande Island. But some of them drowned in this river. They [those who survived] came back to the Fuliyande Island.

”Ū‚įk”’ll‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁA‚ā‚ĩ—ˆ‚Č‚ĸ‚Č‚į‹ē‚Š‚ģ‚¤‚Æ‚ĩ‚ŊB‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚Ė‚ā‚ģ‚Ė‚Æ‚Ģe‚Ēƒ|[ƒE‚Æ•ú‚Ŋ‚ę‚Ŋ‚Š‚į‚žBl‚Ņ‚Ƃ͏e‚đ’m‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚Í‚¸‚Ē‚Č‚ĸBl‚Ņ‚Æ‚ÍŽŸX‚Ɛė‚É—Ž‚ŋ‚āA‰“‚­A‚Ū‚ą‚¤‚Ü‚Å—Ŧ‚ŗ‚ę‚Ä‚ĸ‚Á‚ŊB‚ģ‚ę‚Å‚āA‚Č‚ņ‚Æ‚ŠƒtƒŠƒAƒ“ƒf“‡‚Ė‚Ų‚¤‚Ɉø‚Ģ•Ô‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĸ‚Á‚Ŋ‚ĒA‚Č‚Š‚É‚Í‚ą‚Ėė‚Å“M‚ꎀ‚ņ‚žŽŌ‚ā‚ĸ‚ŊB”Ū‚įkļ‚Ģ‚Ė‚Ņ‚ŊŽŌl‚́AƒtƒŠƒAƒ“ƒf“‡‚É–ß‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚Á‚ŊB

Annasaarey ya kakaaru boŋ ɲaajin fo yoŋ haw ya-cine kaŋ malfey dake i boŋ, i ga zi ga kakaaru tutiya, i ga zi ga kakaaru tuti, kal i koy du Fuliyande jabo. Hal i ga soora, kul i ne : áHeey! I ka, i kaâ. *I ye ka huru ka do Koorugungu isaa ra, koy zigi Koorugungu. I ne i ma ye de ka key, gey si ba kal de gen d'ey ma waafaku. Gey man ka i wiiyoŋ se, hal gey naŋ g i wi naŋ go key din, doŋ gey ni wi ka ben saain, ba gorŋo si cindi. I hambur. I koy bere kal Hawsa. Boro cindo yoole yaamo isa ra.

The whites tied huge Sesbania[2] together like this, put a gun on top of it, and swam as they pushed it. They swam as they pushed it and reached the shore of the Fuliyande Island. As they were getting settled, [people] saw them and said, eYou guys, they are here, they are here.f [laughing,] People hastily jumped into the river on the side of the Korgoungou Island and climbed onto the island. They [whites] said to them, eCome back. We just want to ally with you. We are not here to kill you. If we were, we would have slaughtered every single one of you already, and not even a chicken would be alive.f They [the people] were afraid. They swam off to the east bank. Some of them ended up drowning in the river.

”’l‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁA‹‘å‚ČƒZƒXƒoƒjƒA[3]‚đ‚ą‚Ė‚悤‚É‚ĩ‚΂Á‚Ä‚ģ‚Ė‚¤‚Ļ‚ɏe‚đ’u‚ĢA‚ģ‚ę‚đ‰Ÿ‚ĩ‚Č‚Ē‚į‰j‚ĸ‚ŁA‰Ÿ‚ĩ‚Č‚Ē‚į‰j‚ĸ‚ŁAƒtƒŠƒAƒ“ƒf“‡‚ĖŠŨ‚É‚Ŋ‚Į‚č‚‚ĸ‚ŊB”Ū‚į‚Ē€”õ‚𐎂Ļ‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚ƁA‚ģ‚ę‚đŒŠ‚Ŋkl‚Ņ‚Ƃ́lAu‚¨‚¨‚ĸB—ˆ‚Ŋ‚ŧA—ˆ‚Ŋ‚ŧv‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB*kÎ‚ĸ‚Č‚Ē‚įl”Ū‚į‚Í‘åQ‚ăR[ƒ‹ƒOƒ“ƒO“‡‘¤‚Ėė‚É”ō‚Ņ‚ą‚ŨAƒR[ƒ‹ƒOƒ“ƒO“‡‚É‚Í‚ĸ‚ ‚Ē‚Á‚ŊB”Ū‚įk”’ll‚Í”Ū‚į‚ÉŒž‚Á‚ŊB–ß‚Á‚Ä—ˆ‚ĸAŽŠ•Ē‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í“¯–ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ĸ‚ž‚¯‚žAŽE‚ˇ‚Ŋ‚ß‚É—ˆ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚Å‚Í‚Č‚ĸA‚ā‚ĩŽE‚ˇ‚‚ā‚č‚Č‚įA‚ā‚¤‚Æ‚Á‚­‚ÉŠFŽE‚ĩ‚É‚ĩ‚āAƒjƒƒgƒŠˆę•C‚ž‚Á‚Ä‚Ė‚ą‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚Č‚ĸB”Ū‚įkl‚Ņ‚Ɓl‚Í‹°‚ę‚ŊB‚ŗ‚į‚É“ŒŠŨ‚Ö‚Æ“Ļ‚°‚Ä‚ĸ‚Á‚ŊBˆę•”‚Ėl‚Í‚Ŋ‚žė‚Å“M‚ꎀ‚ņ‚žB

@   Sohoŋ wo-din, i ma wo-din doro. Hal i ye ka ceeci koyne ka koy kal i to Kaasalme hondo din ga, ga no i ca, i ne Deesa borey kaaga se : áWala Isifi Zibo, wal a go noâ? I ne : áWalaahi a go noâ. I ne Isifi Zibo se a ma ka. Ga wo bine i na daŋ, banɲey no daŋ yaamo hiyo ra. I koy. De annasaarey di celey waafaku, i na gey senno kul te, de gey tiraa no i se, zama han din borey i si bey boro ka te tilas. I ne a ma koy gaabu a ga, gar bisa ka koy Toomare.

This incident gave them [the whites] pain. They went off for another search. Then on a road next to a caasarme [a settlement], they sent a messenger to the ancestors of people of Dessa, saying eIs Issoufi Zibo here?f They said, eWallahi, yes, hefs here.f They [the whites] told Issoufi Zibo to come. What he [Issoufi] did was he just put some slaves on a boat [to send over in place of him]. They went. Then the whites allied with them, settled a deal, and gave them paper. People in those days, however, had no idea that this person would eventually gain power. They [the whites] said to make sure to hold on to it [the paper], and set out for Tomare.

               ‚ģ‚¤‚ĸ‚¤‚ą‚Æ‚Ē‚ ‚Á‚āA”Ū‚įk”’l‚́l’É‚Ũ‚đŠo‚Ļ‚ŊB”Ū‚į‚Í‚ ‚į‚Ŋ‚É’T‚ĩ‚É‚ĸ‚Á‚Ä‚ĩ‚Ü‚Á‚ŊB‚ģ‚ę‚ŃJ[ƒTƒ‹ƒkW—Žl‚Ē‚ ‚é“š‚ŁAƒf[ƒT‚Ėl‚Ņ‚Æ‚Ė‘cæ‚ɁAuƒCƒXƒtƒBEƒYƒBƒ{‚Í‚ĸ‚é‚Šv‚ÆŽgŽŌ‚đo‚ĩ‚ŊB”Ū‚į‚́Auƒƒbƒ‰[ƒqA‚ĸ‚Ü‚ˇv‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB”Ū‚įk”’l‚Ŋ‚ŋl‚̓CƒXƒtƒBEƒYƒBƒ{‚É—ˆ‚ĸ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB”ŪkƒCƒXƒtƒBl‚Ė‚΂ ‚ĸ‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁA‚Ŋ‚žkg‘ã‚í‚č‚Ɂl“z—ę‚đƒ{[ƒg‚ɏ悚‚ŊB”Ū‚į‚͍s‚Á‚ŊB‚ģ‚ĩ‚Ä”’l‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í”Ū‚į‚Æ“¯–ŋ‚đŒ‹‚ŅA˜b‚đ‚ˇ‚×‚Ä‚Ü‚Æ‚ßA”Ū‚į‚ÉŽ†‚đ—^‚Ļ‚ŊB‚Æ‚Í‚ĸ‚Ļ“–Žžl‚Ņ‚Ƃ́A‚ģ‚Ėl‚ĒŒ —Í‚đ‚ā‚‚ą‚Æ‚É‚Č‚ë‚¤‚Æ‚Í’m‚į‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB”Ū‚įk”’ll‚Í‚ģ‚ękŽ†l‚đ‚ĩ‚Á‚Š‚č‚ā‚Á‚Ä‚¨‚­‚悤‚É‚ÆŒž‚Á‚āAƒg[ƒ}ƒŒ‚É‚Ū‚Š‚Á‚ŊB

               I koy Toomare din, ga n genda Toomare borey din, gey mey koy te ya. Gey wey waafaku no-din. I gar, i sobey ka gana ka koy kal Dulusu. I koy no-din, i ye ka bere ka ya ka ka. Sohoŋ borey din mey ka k i di ka annasaarey n i har. Tomare din, i ne wallaahi gey wey, gey silman keyna fo, gey na no Deesa borey se.Ya-din ga gey si hin ka te ya-cine, hala gey ma di wo-din banda.

               They went to Tomare and did the same thing with the people of Tomare. They made an alliance there. They then moved onto Doulous. After they went there, they came back. This time, the people [people of Tomare] came as well. Once they came, the whites talked to them. They [the whites] said, eWe have given something to the people of Dessa. Whatfs done is done, but it should never be repeated to the people of Tomare. Absolutely(Wallahi) not.f

               ”Ū‚į‚̓g[ƒ}ƒŒ‚ɍs‚ĢA‚ģ‚ą‚Å‚āƒg[ƒ}ƒŒ‚ĖlŠÔ‚Æ‚¨‚Č‚ļ‚ą‚Æ‚đ‚ĩ‚ŊB”Ū‚į‚Í‚ģ‚ą‚Å“¯–ŋ‚đŒ‹‚ņ‚žB‚ģ‚ę‚Š‚į”Ū‚į‚́AƒhƒDƒ‹ƒX‚ւƈڂÁ‚Ä‚ĸ‚Á‚ŊB‚ģ‚ą‚ɍs‚­‚ƁA‚Ü‚Ŋ‚Đ‚Ģ‚Š‚Ļ‚ĩ‚Ä—ˆ‚ŊBĄ“x‚Í‚ģ‚Ėl‚Ņ‚Ɓkƒg[ƒ}ƒŒ‚Ėl‚Ņ‚ƁlŽŠg‚ā‚â‚Á‚Ä—ˆ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚ž‚ĒA”Ū‚į‚Ē—ˆ‚é‚ƁA”’l‚͘b‚ĩ‚Ä‚â‚Á‚Ä‚ŊB”Ū‚įk”’l‚Ŋ‚ŋl‚ÍŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚ ‚é‚ā‚Ė‚đƒf[ƒT‚ĖlŠÔ‚É—^‚Ļ‚ŊA‚Đ‚Æ‚Ŋ‚Ņ‚ģ‚ę‚Ē‚ˇ‚ņ‚Å‚ĩ‚Ü‚Á‚Ŋ‚Š‚į‚ɂ́A‚ģ‚¤‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ą‚Æ‚đƒg[ƒ}ƒŒ‚É‚ˇ‚é‚ą‚Ƃ͐â‘΂É(ƒƒbƒ‰[ƒq)‚Å‚Ģ‚Č‚ĸB

               To, i koy gey gora te Dulusu din, Dulusu din gungiyo fo no, isa gamo ra no ya. I ka ka ngey gora te no-din ra, i sobey ka dira labo ra, hal a ka ka to sohoŋ i ne gey ma te koyrey se jine. Sohoŋ borey ka ka ba jine-borotara. I miile i sohoŋ gey wey gey ga du jine-borotara. Toomare borey ba wo-din, i man du wo-din. Ir mey wono kaŋ ne-wo, i ne a se a ma ka. I ne a se hal a koy, a naŋ ga bu, a hambur, a man ka i do. Waato kaŋ jiney i koy, i ne a tiraa din, i g i tiraa, i ne Isifi Ziibo se wal mana? Isifi na tiira sambu a no. I ne : áTo, maadulla. To, boro wo no ngey daŋ jineâ.

               Now, they [the whites] settled in Doulous. Doulous is a big island in the middle of the Niger River. They settled there, walked around, and finally announced that they would appoint a headman for the villages. Wanting the status of a headman, people started gathering. They thought they would be able to get that status. The people of Tomare wanted it, but they didnft get it. As for our ancestor here, they [the whites] told him to come over. He [Isa Begum] got scared when told he would die if he went to them [the whites], so he didnft go. Once people have gathered, they, the paper . . . them, the paper . . . They [the whites] said to Issoufi Zibo, eWhere [is the paper]?f Issoufi took out paper and handed it to them. They [the whites] said, eAll right. Good. We will make this person the headman.f

               ‚ŗ‚āA”Ū‚įk”’l‚Ŋ‚ŋl‚̓hƒDƒ‹ƒX‚É’čZ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚ž‚ĒA‚ą‚ĖƒhƒDƒ‹ƒX‚Ƃ́AƒjƒWƒF[ƒ‹ė‚Ė’†‰›‚É‚ ‚é‘å‚Ģ‚Č“‡‚ž‚Á‚ŊB”Ū‚į‚Í‚ģ‚ą‚É’čZ‚ĩA‚ą‚Ė’n‚đ„‰ņ‚ĩA‚Æ‚¤‚Æ‚¤”‘ē‚Ė‘O‚đ‚‚­‚é‚ÆŒž‚ĸ‚ž‚ĩ‚ŊB‚ˇ‚é‚Ɛl‚Ņ‚Æ‚Í‘O‚Ėl‚Ė’nˆĘ‚Ų‚ĩ‚ŗ‚ɏW‚Ü‚Á‚Ä—ˆ‚ŊB”Ū‚į‚ÍŽŠ•Ē‚Ē‘O‚Ėl‚Ė’nˆĘ‚đ‚Ļ‚į‚ę‚é‚ƍl‚Ļ‚Ä‚ĸ‚ŊBƒg[ƒ}ƒŒ‚ĖlŠÔ‚Í‚ą‚ę‚đ—~‚ĩ‚Ē‚Á‚Ŋ‚ĒA‚Ļ‚į‚ę‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB‚ą‚ą‚É‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘cæ‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁA”Ū‚įk”’l‚Ŋ‚ŋl‚É—ˆ‚é‚悤‚ÉŒž‚í‚ę‚ŊB”ŪkƒCƒTEƒx[ƒOƒ“l‚́As‚Á‚Ŋ‚įŽ€‚ņ‚Å‚ĩ‚Ü‚¤‚Æ‚ĸ‚í‚ę‚Ä•|‚­‚Č‚čA”Ū‚įk”’l‚Ŋ‚ŋl‚Ė‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚ɍs‚Š‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊBl‚Ņ‚Æ‚ĒW‚Ü‚é‚ƁA”Ū‚į‚ÍŽ†cA”Ū‚į‚ĒŽ†cA”Ū‚įk”’l‚Ŋ‚ŋl‚̓CƒXƒtƒBEƒYƒBƒ{‚ɁukŽ†‚́l‚Į‚ą‚žv‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊBƒCƒXƒtƒB‚ÍŽ†‚đ‚Æ‚č‚ž‚ĩ‚āA“n‚ĩ‚ŊB”Ū‚įk”’l‚Ŋ‚ŋl‚́A‚¤‚ŪAŒ‹\A‚æ‚ĩA‚ą‚Ėl•¨‚đ‘O‚É’u‚­‚ą‚Æ‚É‚ĩ‚悤v‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB

               Waat in no ir mey wone manti a jin no, waat in lakkalo tun, ga no a ye ka zuru ka koy no, ga mo ne : áLey! Isifi si huroâ. Annasaarey mey ne : áLeyâ! Saalahhu senno wo bumbo hal a man a naŋ, kul gey ga wi. Oho. Tuba ne a se : áGuna, ay wo hano kaŋ ay ka, ni se n i ka. Amma kaŋ ni wenji ka ka. I ne da ni ka, naŋ ga bu. Hoŋo kaŋ gey na labu wo kul dira, gey ba boro wo ka gey kubey Deesa. Za gey to, i ka gey do. Ay ne gey tiira no i se. Hoŋo kaŋ ga i na tiira no i se, i sinda fondo kul kaŋ ga tiira ta ka n a se. Wa koy goro da no. Wo kaŋ naŋ Deesa mo kaan ir meâ. Oho. Hero ban ka te. Annasaara wo tiira da a ban ka hantum, a si kottu koyne, a si a tuusu. Oho. Sohoŋ ba ni wo boro kaŋ ne ma ni tira tuusu, ni ga yedda?

               Then our ancestors said, eHe shouldnft become the headman.f They panicked, rushed to the scene, and said, eAbsolutely not. Issoufi should not be the one.f The whites said, eItfs not negotiable.f eIt is Godfs will. So if you donft let it happen, we will kill you.f Hmm. [Isa Begumfs] maternal nephew said to him, eYou see? This is why I told you to come that day. But you wouldnft because somebody said you would die if you did. Now they [whites] have gone everywhere, and became fond of this guy [Issoufi] they met in Dessa. When they [the whites] showed up, they [Issoufi and his people] went to them [the whites]. The paper was given to them [Issoufi and his people]. Now that the paper has been given to them, there is no way to get it back and give it to someone else. You go home and be happy. Let Dessa rule.f Yeah. Thatfs how it was done. Whitesc, once theyfve signed a paper, they never break it nor erase it. Hmm. You, perhaps too, wouldnft agree to erase a [the content of a] memo.

               ‚ģ‚Ė‚Æ‚Ģ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘cæ‚́A”Ū‚Ē‘O‚Å‚Í‚Č‚ĸA‚ģ‚ę‚đ‚Ģ‚ĸ‚Ä‹C‚đ“Ž“]‚ŗ‚š‚āA‚ą‚ņ‚Į‚Í‘å‹}‚Ŧ‚Å‚Š‚¯‚‚¯‚āAuâ‘΂Ȃį‚ņBƒCƒXƒtƒB‚Ē‚Č‚é‚ׂĢ‚Å‚Í‚Č‚ĸv‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB”’l‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁAu‚ģ‚ę‚ą‚ģ‚Č‚į‚ņv‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚ą‚ę‚͐_‚ĖŽv‚ĩĸ‚ĩ‚Ŋ˜b‚Č‚Ė‚ž‚Š‚įA‚ģ‚Ė‚悤‚É‚ĩ‚Č‚ĸ‚Č‚į‚ˇ‚Ž‚ÉŽE‚ĩ‚Ä‚â‚é‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚¤‚ŪBkƒCƒTƒx[ƒOƒ“‚Ėl•ę•ûƒIƒC‚Í”Ū‚ÉŒž‚Á‚ŊBu‚ģ‚įŒŠ‚ëA‚ž‚Š‚į‚ ‚Ė“ú‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Í—ˆ‚ĸ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚Ŋ‚Ė‚žB‚ĩ‚Š‚ĩ‚ ‚Č‚Ŋ‚Í—ˆ‚悤‚Æ‚ĩ‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB—ˆ‚Ŋ‚įŽ€‚Ę‚ÆŒž‚í‚ę‚āB‚ĸ‚Ü‚âA”Ū‚įk”’ll‚Í‚ą‚Ė’n‚ˇ‚ׂĂđ‚Ü‚í‚čAƒf[ƒT‚ʼnī‚Á‚Ŋ‚ą‚ĖlkƒCƒXƒtƒBl‚đ‹C‚É‚ĸ‚Á‚Ä‚ĩ‚Ü‚Á‚ŊB”Ū‚įk”’ll‚Ē—ˆ‚é‚ƁA”Ū‚įkƒCƒXƒtƒB‚Ŋ‚ŋl‚Í”Ū‚įk”’ll‚Ė‚ā‚Æ‚É‚â‚Á‚Ä—ˆ‚ŊB”Ū‚įkƒCƒXƒtƒB‚Ŋ‚ŋl‚ÉŽ†‚Í—^‚Ļ‚į‚ę‚Ŋ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚æB‚ĸ‚Ü‚â”Ū‚į‚ÉŽ†‚Ē—^‚Ļ‚į‚ę‚Ŋ‚Ė‚ž‚Š‚įAŽ†‚đ‚Æ‚č‚Š‚Ļ‚ĩ‚Ä—^‚Ļ‚Č‚¨‚ˇ•û–@‚Í‚Č‚ĸB‹A‚Á‚Ä‚¨‚Æ‚Č‚ĩ‚­‚ĩ‚Ä‚Č‚ŗ‚ĸBƒf[ƒT‚ĒŽx”z‚ˇ‚é‚Ü‚Ü‚É‚ĩ‚Ä‚¨‚Ģ‚Č‚ŗ‚ĸvB‚¤‚ŪB‚ą‚¤‚ĩ‚ÄŒˆ’…‚Ē‚‚ĸ‚ŊB”’l‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ā‚Ė‚́AŽ†‚đ‚ĸ‚Á‚Ŋ‚ņ‘‚ĸ‚Ä‚ĩ‚Ü‚Á‚Ŋ‚įA‚ģ‚ę‚đ“ņ“x‚Æ”j‚į‚Č‚ĸ‚ĩAÁ‚ĩ‚ā‚ĩ‚Č‚ĸB‚¤‚ŪB‚Ŋ‚Æ‚Ļ‚ÎŒN‚ž‚Á‚āA’N‚Š‚É‚ģ‚Ėƒm[ƒgk‚Ė“ā—el‚đÁ‚š‚Æ‚ĸ‚í‚ę‚Ä‚āŗ‘ø‚ĩ‚Č‚ĸ‚ž‚낤B

\\        Ay wo ay ga yedda ya.

               I would.

               ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚͏ŗ‘ø‚ĩ‚Ü‚ˇ‚æB

A)           Aa?

               Huh?

               ‚ņB

\\        Ay wo ay ga yedda.

                              I would erase a memo.

               ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚͏ŗ‘ø‚ĩ‚Ü‚ˇB

A)           To, wo-din manti wan d'ey no*.

               Ha, I guess you are different [laughs].

               ‚¤‚ŪA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ė‚΂ ‚ĸ‚Í‚ŋ‚Ē‚¤‚悤‚ž‚Ë*kÎ‚¤lB

\\        Amma hal, hal boro kaŋ ga har ay se bumbo no ka ne ay se manti ya-wo-cine no, tuusu, kul ay ga yedda.

               ‚ā‚ĩA‚ā‚ĩ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚ɘb‚ĩ‚Ä‚­‚ę‚ŊlŽŠg‚Ē‚ģ‚¤‚ļ‚á‚Č‚ĸAÁ‚šA‚ÆŒž‚Á‚Ŋ‚į‚ˇ‚Ž‚ɏŗ‘ø‚ĩ‚Ü‚ˇB

A)           Oho, oho, to, guna, ya no. Wo ka ne jine borey i n ir mey...

               If somebody who spoke to me said, eThatfs wrong. Erase it,f then I would agree to do so right away.

               ‚¤‚Ū‚¤‚ŪA‚Ų‚įŒŠ‚ëA‚ģ‚¤‚ž‚낤B‚ģ‚Ė‚悤‚É”N’ˇŽŌ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚āŒž‚Á‚āc

               Right. See? Yeah. Thatfs what the elders are saying, tooc

M)[4]         Manti ya-din no a ne. Danga sohoŋ hal borey kaŋ ga bey kul har ni se, i har ka ben. De ni koy Fuliyande, boro fo ma ka ka ni gar kaŋ si ha kul bey, a ma ne ni se : áNi hantumey din, i tuusu. A naŋâ. Ni ga yedda?

               Thatfs not what he meant. If some people told you everything they knew and finished telling you the whole story. Then you come back to the Fuliyande settlement, and somebody who happens to see you—somebody who knows nothing about what has been said— said, eErase what you wrote. Just ignore it,f would you agree?

               ‚ģ‚¤‚ĸ‚¤‚ą‚Æ‚ļ‚á‚Č‚ĸB‚Ŋ‚Æ‚Ļ‚΂ā‚ĩ‚ ‚él‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ē’m‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚ą‚Æ‚đ‚Ũ‚Č‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚ɘb‚ĩA˜b‚ĩ‚¨‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚Æ‚ˇ‚éB‚ģ‚ę‚Å‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚ĒƒtƒŠƒAƒ“ƒfW—Ž‚É‹A‚Á‚āA‚Ŋ‚Ü‚Ŋ‚Ü‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚đŒŠ‚Š‚¯‚Ŋ‰Ŋ‚ā’m‚į‚Č‚ĸ’N‚Š‚ĒAu‘‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚ą‚Æ‚đÁ‚šA‚Ų‚¤‚Á‚Ä‚¨‚¯v‚ÆŒž‚Á‚Ŋ‚įA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļŗ‘ø‚ˇ‚é‚ŠB

\\        Wo-wo ke ay si yedda.

               In that case, I wouldnft.

               ‚ģ‚ę‚͏ŗ‘ø‚ĩ‚Č‚ĸ‚æB

M)           Cap!

               Tchappu.

               ƒ`ƒƒƒbƒv[5]B

A)           Oho*.

               Hmm [laughs].

               ‚¤‚Ū*kÎ‚¤lB

\\        Hal boro ga waani, ay si yedda.

               If [the person who told me the story and the person who tells me to erase it] are not the same, I wouldnft.

               ‚ā‚ĩk‹ŗ‚Ļ‚Ä‚­‚ę‚Ŋl‚ƁAÁ‚š‚ÆŒž‚¤l‚Ēl•ĘX‚ž‚Á‚Ŋ‚įAŗ‘ø‚ĩ‚Č‚ĸ‚æB

A)           Oho, to, ya-cine no. Gey mey ne * gey si yedda. Wo ka naŋ gey mey ka i na ir mey. Sohoŋ ir koyra gonda wo doro, Toomare borey gonda wo doro. Ha kaŋ naŋ Deesa borey ka ka gey dabari. Oho.

               ‚¤‚ŪA‚ģ‚¤‚ĸ‚¤‚킯‚Č‚Ė‚žB”Ū‚įk”’ll‚ā*k•ˇ‚Ģ‚Æ‚č•s‰Â”\lŗ‘ø‚ĩ‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB”Ū‚įkƒf[ƒT‚ĖlŠÔl‚Ē‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚đŽx”z‚ĩ‚Č‚æ‚¤‚É‚ˇ‚é‚ą‚Æ‚đB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘ē‚́AĄ‚ā‚ą‚Ė‚ą‚Æ‚đ‚ß‚Ž‚é’É‚Ũ‚đ‚Š‚Š‚Ļ‚Ä‚ĸ‚āAƒg[ƒ}ƒŒ‚ĖlŠÔ‚ā‚ą‚Ė‚ą‚Æ‚đ‚ß‚Ž‚é’É‚Ũ‚đ•ø‚Ļ‚Ä‚ĸ‚éBƒf[ƒT‚ĖlŠÔ‚ĒŽw}‚ĩ‚‚¯‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚ą‚Ƃɑ΂ĩ‚Ä‚žB‚¤‚ŪB

               Hmm. So thatfs the story. They [the whites] did not agree [inaudible], either, not to let them [the people of Dessa] rule us. Our village is still feeling pain because of this, and so are the people of Tomare. You know, regarding the fact that the people of Dessa remain in power. Hmm.

               Sohoŋ ir kul kaayey bu da wo doro kaŋ na naŋ Deesa wo ka ka te ir se jine huno k ir dabari. Toomare borey kaayey bu da wo doro. Ir mey wone bu da wo doro. Zama ir kul ga tamma hã, ir ga bisa borey kaŋ ka ka ir mey. Oho. Ha kaŋ ga naŋ, i ma ir dabari ka te ir se jine huno, Toomare borey ga miile wallaahi gey si wo konte ley! Boro wo kaŋ yoŋ ka ka gey mey, ir mo hun boro wo mo ga tam, ga si..., wo Isifi Zibo konte ley hal a ma ka ga game. Annasaarey mo bora kaŋ si ba a ga si a gey almano no.

               Our ancestors died with the pain that Dessa has become our chief and came to control us. The people of Tomare died with the pain. Our ancestors died with the pain. Hmm. This is because we all consider ourselves superior to those who rule us. Hmm. They [the people of Dessa] came to rule us as our chief, but the people of Tomare think they absolutely(Wallahi) cannot be trusted. We donft trust who came to rule us, Issoufi Zibo, at all either. We think the fact that he has become the center [is unacceptable]. As for whites, they only like those who give them livestock.

               ‚ą‚¤‚ĩ‚Ä‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘cæ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‚Ũ‚ȁAƒf[ƒT‚Ē‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ĖŽņ’ˇ‚Æ‚Č‚čA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚đŽw}‚ˇ‚é‚悤‚É‚Č‚Á‚Ŋ‚ą‚Æ‚Ö‚Ė’É‚Ũ‚đ•ø‚Ļ‚Č‚Ē‚įŽ€‚ņ‚Å‚ĸ‚Á‚ŊBƒg[ƒ}ƒŒ‚ĖlŠÔ‚Ė‘cæ‚Í‚ą‚Ė’É‚Ũ‚Æ‚Æ‚ā‚ÉŽ€‚ņ‚Å‚ĸ‚Á‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘cæ‚ā‚ą‚Ė’É‚Ũ‚Æ‚Æ‚ā‚ÉŽ€‚ņ‚Å‚ĸ‚Á‚ŊB‚¤‚ŪB‚Č‚ē‚Č‚į‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‚Ũ‚ȁA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚đŽx”z‚ˇ‚éŽŌ‚æ‚莊•Ē‚Ē‚ˇ‚Ž‚ę‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚ƍl‚Ļ‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚Š‚į‚žB‚¤‚ŪB”Ū‚įkƒf[ƒT‚ĖlŠÔl‚Ē‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚đŽw}‚ĩA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ĖŽņ’ˇ‚É‚Č‚Á‚Ŋ‚ą‚Ƃɂ‚ĸ‚āAƒg[ƒ}ƒŒ‚ĖlŠÔ‚́Aâ‘΂É(ƒƒbƒ‰[ƒq)AM—Š‚Å‚Ģ‚Č‚ĸ‚ƍl‚Ļ‚Ä‚ĸ‚éB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚āA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚đŽx”z‚ˇ‚é‚ą‚Æ‚É‚Č‚Á‚ŊlcAƒCƒXƒtƒBEƒYƒBƒ{‚đ‚Ü‚Á‚Ŋ‚­M—Š‚Å‚Ģ‚Č‚ĸA”Ū‚Ē’†S‚É‚ĸ‚é‚悤‚É‚Č‚Á‚Ŋ‚ą‚Ɓk‚ÍŽķ‚¯“ü‚ę‚Ē‚Ŋ‚ĸl‚ƍl‚Ļ‚Ä‚ĸ‚éBˆę•û”’l‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁAŽŠ•Ē‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ɉƒ{‚đ—^‚Ļ‚éŽŌ‚ĩ‚ŠD‚Ģ‚Å‚Í‚Č‚ĸB

kŒã—Ēl[Later part omitted]

 

1-3.  ƒT[ƒoEƒe[ƒ‰‘ē‘nŨ杁@Story of the establishment of the village of Saaba-Tera

k‘O—Ēl[Earlier part omitted]

A)           Sohoŋ, beyra no ay ga har ni se. Hano kaŋ ga ir meytara, Joori, sooja kaŋ se i ga ne Fuseyni Kunce, ga ka ka ka hino samb, a ga hino samb, a ne borey se : áDa ni ga ba ni ma goro Tilabeeri meytara ra, da ni ga ba ma goro Kokor meytara ra, noŋ kul kaŋ ni ga ba, ma koy ni huwo cin. Wo banda mo bonkoyni kul kaŋ kaan ni se ma gana, ma kabu, ma jangar bana a se. A sinda heri fo kul. Ni faro kaŋ ni ga mey gungo ra, da ni koy bonkoyno wo banda ka kabu, gungo bora wa ka si a banda a si duw'a. Da bora kaŋ go gungo ra mo, a faro go Gurma ra, za ni si Gurma, Teera borey bande ma kabu, Teera bora si n ganji man faro. Boro kul kaŋ kaan ni se, kaŋ ni di ne ga n kankam, kul ma koy goroâ. Danga ya-wo cine kaŋ ni ka dendi Fuliyande wo, ni go ga maar'ey a ra, danga ba ni ma ye ne ka kabu, amiiru Looga bande, da ni di amiiru Looga izey se ni ga ka.

              Now, let me talk about what you want to know. During Diorifs reign, a soldier named Seyni Kountche gained power. After gaining power, he said, eIf you want to live under Tilabeerifs rule, do so. If you want to live under Terafs rule, do so. Build a house wherever you want to live. And follow a chief that you choose to follow, resister your residency, and pay taxes. Therefs no problem with that. If you own a field on the island, count your harvest under the chief there. If you donft see eye to eye with the chief there, it cannot be done. Those who live on the island, if you donft live on the west bank, even if you own a field there, count the harvest under Terafs people. People of Tera cannot stop you from cultivating land there. Do as you wish. If you think itfs too small here, go ahead and move somewhere else. Let me explain. If you came down to Fuliyande and heard that [Kountche's words], you stop counting here and instead resister your residency under the chief of Looga. You tell that to the people of Loogafs chief.

              ‚ł́A’m‚č‚Ŋ‚ĸ‚ą‚Æ‚đ˜b‚ģ‚¤BƒWƒ‡[ƒŠ­Œ ŠúAƒtƒZƒCƒjEƒNƒ“ƒ`ƒF‚ÆŒž‚¤ƒ\ƒ‹ƒWƒƒ[‚ĒŒ —Í‚đ‚É‚Ŧ‚Á‚ŊBŒ —Í‚đ‚É‚Ŧ‚Á‚Ŋ”Ū‚ÍŒž‚Á‚ŊBuƒeƒBƒ‰ƒx[ƒŠ‚ĖŽx”z‚ɏZ‚Ũ‚Ŋ‚¯‚ę‚΂ģ‚¤‚ĩ‚Č‚ŗ‚ĸAƒe[ƒ‰‚ĖŽx”z‚ɏZ‚Ũ‚Ŋ‚¯‚ę‚΂ģ‚¤‚ĩ‚Č‚ŗ‚ĸAZ‚Ũ‚Ŋ‚ĸ‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚É‰Æ‚đŒš‚Ä‚Č‚ŗ‚ĸB‚ģ‚ĩ‚Ä–ž‘Ģ‚ˇ‚éŽņ’ˇ‚ɏ]‚ĸA”‚ĻA”[Å‚ĩ‚Č‚ŗ‚ĸB‚Ü‚Á‚Ŋ‚­–â‘č‚ ‚č‚Ü‚š‚ņB“‡‚É‚ ‚Č‚Ŋ‚ĒŠ—L‚ˇ‚锨‚Ē‚ ‚é‚Ė‚Č‚įA‚ģ‚ą‚É‚ĸ‚éŽņ’ˇ‚Ė‚ā‚ƂŐ”‚Ļ‚Č‚ŗ‚ĸB”Ū‚Æ‚¨‚č‚ ‚ĸ‚Ē‚‚Š‚Č‚ĸ‚Č‚įA‚ģ‚ę‚Í‚Ļ‚į‚ę‚Ü‚š‚ņB“‡‚É‚ĸ‚élŠÔ‚āAŧŠŨ‚É”¨‚Ē‚ ‚é‚Ė‚ɐŧŠŨ‚É‚ĸ‚Č‚ĸ‚Ė‚Č‚įAƒe[ƒ‰‚Ėl‚Ņ‚Æ‚Ė‚ā‚ƂŐ”‚Ļ‚Č‚ŗ‚ĸAƒe[ƒ‰‚Ėl‚Ņ‚Æ‚Í‚ ‚Č‚Ŋ‚Ē‚ģ‚ą‚ōkė‚ˇ‚é‚ą‚Æ‚đ–W‚°‚Ü‚š‚ņB‚Ũ‚Č–ž‘Ģ‚Ē‚ĸ‚­‚悤‚É‚ĩ‚Č‚ŗ‚ĸA‚ą‚ą‚Ē‹ˇ‚ĸ‚ÆŽv‚¤‚Ė‚Č‚įAˆÚZ‚ĩ‚Č‚ŗ‚ĸvB‚‚܂č‚Į‚¤‚ĸ‚¤‚ą‚Æ‚Š‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ē‚ą‚ąƒtƒŠƒAƒ“ƒf‚É‚­‚ž‚Á‚Ä‚Ģ‚āA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ē‚ģ‚ękƒNƒ“ƒ`ƒF‚ĖŒž—tl‚𕡂ĸ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚Č‚įA‚ą‚ą‚Ő”‚Ļ‚é‚ą‚Æ‚đ‚â‚߂āAƒ[ƒK‚ĖŽņ’ˇ‚Ė‚ā‚ƂŐ”‚Ļ‚éBƒ[ƒK‚ĖŽņ’ˇ‚Ė˜A’†‚É‚ģ‚¤“`‚Ļ‚éB

              Saaba wono, zama Saaba wono manti bonkoyni no. Ga wo bi fo da pala din da yenge fo te yenga din ka ka cer di ya-cine, ir te me fo, in na car gana. In ne : áSohoŋ in naŋ ga ka ka ye gungo raâ, borey ba k i go Gurma, i ne in d'a gey ma te me fo, gey g ir gana, gey ma kabu gungo ra. In ne : áTo, hal war ga kab gungo ra, in da wa..., i r ga car gana paley boŋey diiyoŋ kaâ.

As for Saaba [why it should be Loga and not Saaba], Saaba does not have a chief. It only happened recently. A dispute broke out at farmland there, in which we came to understand each other, reached an agreement, and started living side by side. We said, eLetfs go back to the island.f Those who wanted to stay on the west bank concurred and said that they would move to the island and resister their residency there. We also said, eAll right. If you are going to count the harvest on the island, we will also . . . we will cooperate with you over the farmland issue as well.f

              ƒT[ƒo‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚Ɓk‚Č‚ēƒ[ƒK‚ŃT[ƒo‚Å‚Č‚ĸ‚Š‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁlAƒT[ƒo‚Ė‚ģ‚ę‚ÍŽņ’ˇ‚Å‚Í‚Č‚ĸ‚Š‚į‚žB‚ģ‚ę‚͂‚ĸÅ‹ß‚žB‚ģ‚ą‚ĖŒl”Č‹æ‚Å‘ˆ‚ĸ‚Ē‚¨‚ą‚čA‚ģ‚Ė‘ˆ‚ĸ‚Ė‚Č‚Š‚Å‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í—‰đ‚ĩ‚ ‚ĸAˆĶŒŠ‚đ‚Đ‚Æ‚Â‚É‚ĩA‚Æ‚ā‚É•ā‚ņ‚žB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚́Au‚ŗ‚ “‡‚ɖ߂낤v‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊBŧŠŨ‚É‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚ĸlŠÔ‚āAk‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ƁlˆĶŒŠ‚đ‚Đ‚Æ‚Â‚É‚ĩ‚Ä“‡‚ɈڏZ‚ĩA‚ģ‚ą‚Ő”‚Ļ‚é‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚āAu‚æ‚ĩA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ē“‡‚Ő”‚Ļ‚é‚Č‚įA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ācA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ÍŒl”Č‹æ‚Ė–â‘č‚Å‚ā‚Æ‚ā‚É•ā‚Ū‚ą‚Æ‚É‚ĩ‚悤v‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB

              Sohoŋ ir ka ka wo-din te kala, ir ka ka kusuuma din te, waati din i ka, gey mey kaŋ jin ka kabu Teera din, ir borey da no, kaŋ hun ir bande, i koy cer di, i ne hey gey wey gey si kab gungo ra, gey wey g ir go de gey Teera kab wo. Ir mey ne ir se, I se : áManti wo-din se ir sintin. Wan naŋ ne in da war ma huro calla.Hala ir ma dalgey ka, ga ti in da war hino car ganaâ. Dalgey mongey albeero, hal ay ga ciiney ni se, ga ti áfilaanaâ din

Thatfs how we came together. But when the time came, the guys who had been counting the harvest in Tera, in other words, our family, left us, got together among themselves, and said, eHey, we are not going to count the harvest on the island. We are going to count the harvest in Tera.f We, we said to us, I mean, to them, eThatfs not what wefve agreed on. You said you are in with us. You said, eLetfs join hands once we remove the delegates.ff The delegates did not concur [on that matter after all], but between you and me, so-and-so was the head among them.

              ‚ŗ‚āA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‚ą‚Ė‚悤‚É‚ĩ‚āA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ÍŒ‹‚Ņ‚‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚ž‚ĒA‚ĸ‚´‚ģ‚Ė‚Æ‚Ģ‚Ē—ˆ‚é‚ƁA‚ā‚Æ‚ā‚ƃe[ƒ‰‘¤‚Ő”‚Ļ‚Ä‚ĸ‚ŊlŠÔA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ėg“ā‚Å‚ ‚é”Ū‚į‚́A‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ĖŒã‚ë‚Š‚į—Ŗ‚ęA”Ū‚į‚ž‚¯‚ŏW‚Ü‚Á‚āA‚¨‚¨‚ĸA“‡‚Ő”‚Ļ‚Č‚ĸ‚ŧAƒe[ƒ‰‚Ő”‚Ļ‚é‚ŧ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋA‚ĸ‚â”Ū‚į‚ɁAu‚Í‚ļ‚ß‚Ė˜b‚Æ‚ŋ‚Ē‚¤‚ŧA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Æˆę‚É“ü‚é‚ÆŒž‚Á‚Ŋ‚Å‚Í‚Č‚ĸ‚ŠA‘ã•\‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚đœ‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚įA‚Æ‚ā‚É•ā‚ā‚¤‚ÆŒž‚Á‚Ŋ‚Å‚Í‚Č‚ĸ‚Šv‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊBkŒ‹‹Į‚ą‚ĖŒ‚ɂ‚ĸ‚āl‘ã•\‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚͉ž‚ļ‚Č‚Š‚Á‚Ŋ‚Ė‚ž‚ĒA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚É“ā˜b‚đ‚ĩ‚Ä‚â‚é‚ƁA‚ģ‚Ė•M“Ē‚É‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚Ēu–^v‚žB

\\       Oho.áfilaanaâ. Oho. Ayyo.

              Ah, so-and-so. I see.

              ‚ ‚ Au–^v‚Å‚ˇ‚ˁB‚ ‚ B‚Č‚é‚Ų‚ĮB

A)           áfilaanaâ.

So-and-so.

              u–^vB

\\       áfilaanaâ*.

              So-and-so. * [Says his fatherfs name]

u–^v*k•ƒ‚Ė–ŧ‚đŒž‚¤lB

A)           Ayyo, áfilaanaâ. To, ga ti ir yenga din de ir sawa, in d'ey i ye ka car gana, i ne sohoŋ ya-hare ga n ir kaŋ go Tilabeeri, borey, : áIr ma kabu Teera meytaraâ, ir mey ne : áIr si hun Tilabeeri, ir si hun Gaarokoyre ka koy kabu Teeraâ. Wo ir si a te. Amma borey kaŋ fatta, ka ne gey si kab Fuliyande gungo din, kaagey ce-yow de yoŋ no.

              So-and-so. Thatfs right. Now, we fought like that and settled. But when we were about to move, they said to us, who were in Tilabeeri, eWe should register our residency in the district of Tera.f We said, eWe are not going to leave Tilabeeri. We are not going to leave Gaarokoyre and count the harvest in Tera.f We donft do such a thing. But those who decided not to count the harvest in Fuliyande and left, their ancestors simply came here on foot.

              u–^vA‚ģ‚Ė‚Æ‚¨‚čB‚ŗ‚āA‚ģ‚¤‚ĸ‚¤‚Ķ‚¤‚É‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‘ˆ‚ĸ‚đ‚ĩAŒˆ’…‚đ‚‚¯‚Ŋ‚Ė‚ž‚ĒA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Æ”Ū‚į‚ĒˆÚZ‚ˇ‚é’i‚É‚Č‚é‚ƁAƒeƒBƒ‰ƒx[ƒŠ‚É‚ĸ‚é‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ɑ΂ĩA”Ū‚į‚́uƒe[ƒ‰‚Ės­‹æ•Ē‚ŏZ–¯“o˜^‚ĩ‚悤v‚ÆŒž‚ĸ‚ž‚ĩ‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁAuƒeƒBƒ‰ƒx[ƒŠ‚đ—Ŗ‚ę‚Č‚ĸA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚̓K[ƒƒRƒCƒŒ‚đ—Ŗ‚ęƒe[ƒ‰‚Ő”‚Ļ‚Č‚ĸv‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‚ģ‚ņ‚Č‚ą‚Æ‚ĩ‚Č‚ĸ‚Ė‚žB‚ž‚ĒAƒtƒŠƒAƒ“ƒf“‡‚Ő”‚Ļ‚¸o‚Ä‚ĸ‚Á‚ŊŽŌ‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁA‘cæ‚Ē‘Ģ‚Ė‹q‚É‚ˇ‚Ŧ‚Č‚ĸ‚Ė‚žB

\\       Kaagey ce...

              Their ancestors came on foot . . .

              ‘cæ‚Ē‘ĢcB

A)           Oho. I naŋ ka de, i ka, i ka k ir go, ir jine borey gar. Han din mo borey ga ba boro. Ni di? Gen d'ey kaayey lamba car ga. : áLabo wo go. Naŋ kaŋ ni ga ba kul ma goro. Boro kul si kamkamâ. Ya-din ga i ka ka di, ne i si kaan gey se, i ye ngey asilo ga. In ne : áIr wey bine, ir si hun Fuliyande. Gaarokoyre wo, kal de ir bu a ra, ya-din ga ir kaayi wo ga ka Gaarokoyre sintin. Boro kul kaŋ ka, naŋ ka ka a gar. Ni bine ni ga korom, ni ga zuru ma fatta. Amma ir wey kal de ir bu a ra. Ir si fattaâ. Oho. Amma borey kaŋ zuru ka fatta din kul, kaayi naŋ ka de, da cowey. I ka ka goro. In da dumo kaayi hiiji ka hay calla. Ni di wala?

              Right. They just came. They just came where we had been and met our ancestors. All right? People liked other people in those days. They and our ancestors came together. eLand is everywhere. Live wherever you like. You donft need to complain that itfs too hard.f Well, dissatisfaction gradually grew in them. They went back to how they originally felt. We said, eWe are not going to leave Fuliyande. We are going to die in Gaarokoyre. Our ancestor founded Gaarokoyre. Those who came later all met him [the ancestor]. You? You just leave it and run away because itfs too hot. But we are not going to leave here until we die.f Hmm. But as for those who ran away, their ancestors came on foot. They settled here. Our ancestors and their ancestors in the two dumis married each other. You understand?

              ‚¤‚ŪB”Ū‚į‚Í‚Ŋ‚ž‚â‚Á‚Ä—ˆ‚āA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ē‚ĸ‚é‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚É‚Ŋ‚ž‚â‚Á‚Ä—ˆ‚āA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ėæ‘ã‚Əo‰ī‚Á‚ŊB‚ĸ‚ĸ‚ˁB“–Žžl‚͐l‚đD‚Ģ‚ž‚Á‚ŊB”Ū‚į‚Æ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ė‘cæ‚͏d‚Č‚č‚ ‚Á‚ŊBu“y’n‚Í‚ ‚éBD‚Ģ‚Č‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚ɏZ‚Ū‚Ē‚ĸ‚ĸB‚Ģ‚‚ĸ‚Č‚Į‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ą‚Æ‚Í‚Č‚ĸvB‚‚܂čA”Ū‚į‚Í‚ĩ‚ž‚ĸ‚É‚ą‚ą‚É•s–ž‚đ‚¨‚Ú‚Ļ‚é‚悤‚É‚Č‚Á‚Ŋ‚Ė‚žA”Ū‚į‚Í‚ģ‚Ė‹NŒš‚É–ß‚Á‚Ŋ‚Ė‚žB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ÍŒž‚Á‚ŊBu‚ą‚Ė‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚́AƒtƒŠƒAƒ“ƒf‚đ—Ŗ‚ę‚Č‚ĸB‚ą‚ąƒK[ƒƒRƒCƒŒ‚ÅŽ€‚ʁB‚‚܂č‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘cæ‚ĒƒK[ƒƒRƒCƒŒ‚đ‘nŨ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚žBŒã‚Š‚į‚â‚Á‚Ä—ˆ‚ŊŽŌ‚Í‚Ũ‚ȁA”Ūk‘cæl‚Əo‰ī‚Á‚ŊB‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚͏‹‹ę‚ĩ‚ĸ‚ƁA‚Ų‚¤‚č‚ž‚ĩ‚Ä“Ļ‚°‚Ä‚ĸ‚­B‚ž‚Ē‚ą‚Ė‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ÍŽ€‚Ę‚Ü‚Å—Ŗ‚ę‚Č‚ĸvB‚¤‚ŪB‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚Ē“Ļ‚°o‚ĩ‚ŊŽŌ‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁA‘cæ‚Í‘Ģ‚Å—ˆ‚Ŋ‚ž‚¯‚žB”Ū‚į‚͏Z‚Ũ’…‚ĸ‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Æ”Ū‚į‚ĖƒhƒDƒ~‚Ė‘cæ‚́AŒ‹Ĩ‚ĩ‚ ‚Á‚ŊB‚í‚Š‚é‚Š‚ˁB

 

1-4.  ƒT[ƒoEƒe[ƒ‰‘ē‘nŨ‚ĖŽžŠú‚ɂ‚ĸ‚ā@The time when the village of Saaba-Tera was established

\\       Ay diy'a. To, amma Wo kaŋ ay man faham ga ti, sanga pala, sanga Kokor borey ka..., sanga Kunce, Kunce ka ne borey se, e, Gurma borey, e, borey kaŋ kab Tilabeeri ra, amma boro kaŋ go Gurma, ikul ma koy, ikkul ma gana ka koy Gungo ra. Wo-wo ke Kunce waate de no.

              I see. But there is still something Ifm not sure about. So the farmland, well, the people of Kokor . . . , I mean, Kountche, Kountche told people on the west bank that those who are counting the harvest in Tilabeeri but live in the west bank need to all move to the west bank, right? This is during Kountchefs reign, correct?

              ‚í‚Š‚č‚Ü‚ĩ‚ŊB‚ŗ‚āA‚ĩ‚Š‚ĩ‚Ü‚ž—‰đ‚Å‚Ģ‚Ä‚Č‚ĸ‚ą‚Æ‚Ē‚ ‚é‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ĒA‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚Ė‚āŒl”Č‹æA‚Ļ‚Ļ‚ƃRƒRƒ‹‚Ėl‚Ņ‚ƁcA‚ž‚Š‚įƒNƒ“ƒ`ƒFAƒNƒ“ƒ`ƒF‚Ēl‚Ņ‚ƂɁAŧŠŨ‚Ėl‚Ņ‚ƂɁAƒeƒBƒ‰ƒx[ƒŠ‚Ő”‚Ļ‚Ä‚ĸ‚邯‚ę‚Į‚āŧŠŨ‚É‚ĸ‚élŠÔ‚́A‚Ũ‚ȐŧŠŨ‚ɈڏZ‚ĩ‚ë‚ÆŒž‚Á‚Ŋ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚æ‚ˁB‚ą‚ę‚̓Nƒ“ƒ`ƒF­Œ Šú‚Å‚ˇ‚æ‚ˁB

A)           Kunce waate no. Oho.

              During Kountchefs reign. Thatfs right.

              ƒNƒ“ƒ`ƒF­Œ Šú‚žB‚¤‚ŪB

\\       To, wo-din banda, pala karyoŋ go no. Pala karyoŋo wo ke bi fo de, a si ga mooru. To, de pala karyoŋo banda no sohoŋ ciito tun, ciito tun banda no, e, Gurma here borey, i na koyra singi kaŋ ti Isubu yoŋ. Wal manti ya-din no?

              Now, farmland was irrigated after that. The establishment of the irrigated farmland happened only recently, and not a long time ago. Then after the farmland was irrigated, a dispute broke out. After the dispute broke out, the people on the west bank, I mean, Isbou and his people founded a village. Is that right?

              ‚ŗ‚āA‚ģ‚Ė‚ ‚ƂŁAAHA‚ĒŒšŨ‚ŗ‚ę‚ŊBAHAŒšŨ‚͂‚ĸÅ‹ß‚Ė‚ą‚ƂŁA‚ģ‚ę‚Ų‚ĮĖ‚Å‚Í‚Č‚ĸB‚ŗ‚āA‚ģ‚ĖAHAŒšŨŒã‚ÉŒW‘ˆ‚Ē‚¨‚Ģ‚ŊAŒW‘ˆ‚Ē‚¨‚Ģ‚ŊŒã‚ɁAŧŠŨ‚Ėl‚Ņ‚ƁA‚‚܂čƒCƒXƒu[6]‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‘ē‚đ‘nŨ‚ĩ‚ŊB‚ģ‚¤‚Å‚ˇ‚æ‚ˁB

A)           Hun.

              Hmm.

              ‚Ķ‚ņB

\\       To, ya-din ga. Kunce ka ne i ma gana. De i gana. Waato din wo ke ciito man tun hay kul. Wala? Wala ciito tun?

              Now, that means Kountche said to move, so they moved. By that time, the dispute hadnft broken out, right? Or had it?

              ‚ŗ‚āA‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ą‚Ƃ́BƒNƒ“ƒ`ƒF‚ĒˆÚZ‚ĩ‚ë‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB”Ū‚į‚͈ڏZ‚ĩ‚ŊB‚ģ‚Ė‚Æ‚Ģ‚ÍŒW‘ˆ‚Í‚Ü‚ž‚¨‚Ģ‚Ä‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB‚ģ‚¤‚Å‚ˇ‚æ‚ˁB‚ģ‚ę‚Æ‚ā‚¨‚Ģ‚Ä‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           Kunce man ne i ma gana.

              Kountche didnft tell them to move.

              ƒNƒ“ƒ`ƒF‚͈ڏZ‚ĩ‚ë‚ÆŒž‚í‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB

\\       Hun.

              Hm.

              ‚Ķ‚ņB

A)           Kunce man ne i ma gana ley!

              Kountche didnft tell them to move at all.

              ƒNƒ“ƒ`ƒF‚͈ڏZ‚ĩ‚ë‚Æ‚Í‚Ü‚Á‚Ŋ‚­Œž‚í‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB

\\       Ayyo.

              Is that so?

              ‚ģ‚¤‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           A man ne kal : áNoŋ kul kaŋ kaan ni se, kul ni ma goroâ.

              He said, eLive wherever you like.f

              u–ž‘Ģ‚ĸ‚­‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚ɏZ‚Ũ‚Č‚ŗ‚ĸv‚ÆŒž‚Á‚Ŋ‚Ė‚žB

\\       Ha ha. Ayyo.

              Oh, okay.

              ‚Í‚ A‚Í‚ B‚ģ‚¤‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           Non kul kaŋ de nan d i ne ma kaan ni se, kul ma goro. Da bonkoyno ne ni si hun ga tiiraa ra, danga kaŋ ga Looga si yedda, ga ga ne bonkoyno se a ma feynd'ey. áMa koy zumb noŋ kul kaŋ kaan, bonkoyni kaŋ ni ma kul ma koy zumb ma goroâ.

              He said, eLive wherever you like.f He said that even if the chief said not to go outside of the paper—for example, even if Loogafs chief didnft approve—people should follow what they want. eMove wherever you like. Move and live under a chief you approve.f

              u–ž‘Ģ‚ĸ‚­‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚ɏZ‚Ũ‚Č‚ŗ‚ĸv‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊBŽņ’ˇ‚ÍŽ†‚Š‚įo‚é‚Č‚ÆŒž‚Á‚Ä‚āA‚Ŋ‚Æ‚Ļ‚΃[ƒK‚Ēŗ‘ø‚ĩ‚Č‚­‚Ä‚āAŽņ’ˇ‚É‚Ų‚¤‚Á‚Ä‚¨‚¯‚ÆŒž‚Á‚Ŋ‚Ė‚žBu–ž‘Ģ‚ĸ‚­‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚Ɉڂč‚Č‚ŗ‚ĸAD‚Ģ‚ČŽņ’ˇ‚Ė‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚ɈڂčZ‚Ũ‚Č‚ŗ‚ĸvB

\\       Ayyo.

              Oh yeah?

              ‚ģ‚¤‚Č‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           Isubu yoŋ man koyra sintin. Isubu wo bi fo da no ir wey ka dey ir na keyandi.

Isbou and his people hadnft founded the village yet. When it comes to Isbou, we made him the leader recently.

ƒCƒXƒu‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‘ē‚đ‘nŽn‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĸ‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊBƒCƒXƒu‚͂‚ĸÅ‹ßA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ē—§‚Ŋ‚š‚ŊB

\\       Huun. War no ka keyandi.

              I see. You made him the leader.

              ‚Ķ‚¤‚ņB‚ ‚Č‚Ŋ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ē—§‚Ŋ‚š‚ŊB

A)           Ir ka keyandi. Yenga din ir ka te. To, waato kaŋ i ban ga nda nga jama ir ma ngey gana ka kabu Gurma, i ne sohoŋ, Isubu din, a ma gey gen d'ey ma te me fo, sohoŋ ya-din ga i n ir hã, in ne ir si hun ir dogo ra Hal ir ga te bonkoyni, Gaarokoyre ga ti ir bonkoyni, ir bine ir si hun Gaarokoyre ka koy Kokor. Isubu wo Teera ma gana, ir si te ya-din. To, shoŋ ga ti Isubu wey ka, i ne a ma te ngey se jine boro. Bi fo da Isubu * se jiiri taaci wal ihink. Manti ay ga ka koyra sintin.

              We made him the leader. We had the dispute. Now, when that was done, he and his people [told us to] follow them and resister our residency on the west bank. I.K. and others then tried to reach a consensus with us. They also asked us what we wanted to do, but we said we would not leave our home. If we are to decide on a chief, Gaarokoyre is our chief. We are not going to leave Gaarokoyre to live in Kokor. Now, Isbou joined Tera, but we didnft. Then Isbou and his people came and said we should make him the headman. Because of that, Isbou recently* [inaudible] became the chief, but itfs been only four or two years. Who else could you say founded the village if it wasnft me?

              ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ē—§‚Ŋ‚š‚Ŋ‚Ė‚žB‘ˆ‚ĸ‚đ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚́A‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚žB‚ŗ‚āA‚ģ‚ę‚ĒI‚í‚Á‚Ŋ‚Æ‚Ģ‚ɁA”Ū‚Æ‚ģ‚Ėˆę’c‚́A‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ē”Ū‚į‚ɏ]‚ĸŧŠŨ‚Ő”‚Ļ‚ëk‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊlA”Ū‚įAI.K‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚́A‚ģ‚ę‚Š‚įŒž‚Á‚ŊAˆĶŒŠ‚đ‚Đ‚Æ‚Â‚É‚ĩ‚悤‚Æ‚ĩ‚ŊA‚ģ‚ę‚Š‚į‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚É‚ā‚Ŋ‚¸‚Ë‚Ŋ‚Ė‚ž‚ĒA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ĖęŠ‚đ—Ŗ‚ę‚Č‚ĸ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ĒŽņ’ˇ‚đ‚‚­‚낤‚Æ‚āAƒK[ƒƒRƒCƒŒ‚Ē‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ĖŽņ’ˇ‚žA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚̓K[ƒƒRƒCƒŒ‚đ—Ŗ‚ę‚ăRƒRƒ‹‚ɂ͍s‚Š‚Č‚ĸB‚ŗ‚āAƒCƒXƒu‚́Aƒe[ƒ‰‚Ė–ŧ‚ɏ]‚Á‚Ŋ‚Ė‚ž‚ĒA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‚ģ‚¤‚ĩ‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB‚ŗ‚Ä‚ģ‚ĖŒãƒCƒXƒu‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ē‚â‚Á‚Ä—ˆ‚āA”Ū‚đ”Ū‚į‚Ė‘O‚Ėl‚É‚ĩ‚悤‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚ģ‚Ė‚¨‚Š‚°‚ł‚ĸÅ‹ßƒCƒXƒu‚Ē*k•ˇ‚Ģ‚Æ‚č•s‰Â”\lŽņ’ˇ‚É‚Č‚Á‚Ŋ‚킯‚ž‚ĒA‚ģ‚ę‚Š‚į4”N‚ ‚é‚ĸ‚Í2”N‚ĩ‚Š‚Ŋ‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚Č‚ĸB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ē‘ē‚đ‘nŽn‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚Å‚Í‚Č‚­‚Ä‚Č‚ņ‚ž‚낤B

\\       Oho. Ya-din de no.

              Youfre right.

              ‚Ļ‚ĻB‚ģ‚¤‚Å‚ˇ‚ˁB

A)           Bi fo da no.

              Only recently.

              ‚‚ĸÅ‹ß‚žB

\\       Wo-wo ke ni no ka gaakasiney a se?

              You helped him.

              ‚ ‚Č‚Ŋ‚Ē”Ū‚đ•‚¯‚Ŋ‚킯‚Å‚ˇ‚ˁB

A)           Oho. In d'ey celey. K.S. wo kaŋ bu kaŋ ni ga ma, Da Suley yoŋ din, da B.A, o, B.A. wo si ir bande, ayyo amma Suley g ir yenga din ra, Mahamadu g ir yenga din ra, Ir yenga borey ga ba da, Suley yoŋ, ir borey ga ba kaŋ go Gurmaa wo, amma Tilabeeri boro da ti ir. Amma jerey i naŋ ka ka huro ir ra ka lamba. Windo wo borey, gey ti Isubu borey, Teera borey no. Teera no i jan..., i ga kabu, i jangar ga koy. Amma ir wono Tilabeeri no. Ha kul kaŋ hun Teera ma ga, ir wey ir si lamba a ga. Danga kaŋ Teera wo, gey ma ga no gomuni kul ga ka.

              Right. We and our friends. The late K.S., whom you knew as well, Sourey and his people, and B.A. Wait, B.A. wasnft there. But Sourey and his people and we all fought together. Mahamadou was there, too. We had a lot of people on our side in the dispute. For example, Sourey was our family in the west bank, but we were the people of Tilabeeri. But the rest of them joined us later. The guys in that house, Isbou and his guys belong to Tera. They have their residency in Tera and pay taxes there. But we belong to Tilabeeri. If anything is done under the name of Tera, we stay away. For example in Tera, that name brings them all sorts of assistance.

              ‚¤‚ŪB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Æ‚ģ‚Ė’‡ŠÔ‚žB‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚ā’m‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚鎀‚ņ‚žK.S.[7]A‚ģ‚ę‚ƃXƒŒƒC[8]‚Ŋ‚ŋA‚ģ‚ę‚ÉB.A.[9]A‚ĸ‚âB.A.‚Í‚ĸ‚Č‚Š‚Á‚Ŋ‚ȁA‚ģ‚¤‚ž‚ĒƒXƒŒƒC‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Æ‚Æ‚ā‚É‘ˆ‚Á‚Ŋ‚Ė‚žAƒ}ƒnƒ}ƒhƒD[10]‚ā‘ˆ‚ĸ‚Ė‚Č‚Š‚É‚ĸ‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Æ‚Æ‚ā‚É‘ˆ‚Á‚ŊŽŌ‚͑吨‚ĸ‚ŊA‚Ŋ‚Æ‚Ļ‚΃XƒŒƒC[11]‚͐ŧŠŨ‚É‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ėg“ā‚ž‚ĒA‚ĩ‚Š‚ĩƒeƒBƒ‰ƒx[ƒŠ‚ĖlŠÔ‚Í‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ž‚Á‚ŊB‚ĩ‚Š‚ĩ‚Ė‚ą‚č‚Ė˜A’†‚́AŒã‚Š‚į‰Á‚í‚Á‚āA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ɏd‚Č‚Á‚ŊB‚ģ‚ą‚Ė‰Ž•~‚Ė˜A’†AƒCƒXƒu‚́Aƒe[ƒ‰‚ĖlŠÔ‚žBƒe[ƒ‰‚Ő”‚ĻA”[Å‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĸ‚éB‚ĩ‚Š‚ĩ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚̓eƒBƒ‰ƒx[ƒŠ‚žBƒe[ƒ‰‚Ė–ŧ‚É‚¨‚ĸ‚Ä‚Č‚ŗ‚ę‚镨Ž–‚ɁA‚ą‚Ė‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚͉Á‚í‚į‚Č‚ĸB‚Ŋ‚Æ‚Ļ‚΃e[ƒ‰‚ł́A‚ģ‚Ė–ŧ‚É‚¨‚ĸ‚Ä‚ ‚į‚ä‚鉇•‚Ē—ˆ‚éB

kŒã—Ēl

[Later part omitted]

 

1-5.  æ’…ŽŌ‚ƌ㒅ŽŌ‚đ‚ß‚Ž‚éŒę‚č@Remarks about those who came first and those who came later

k‘O—Ēl[Earlier part omitted]

A)           To, wo, ay senno wo go, ma si a ciiney. Naŋ ga ne ay ka ne.

               Hmm. Do not keep what Ifve told you a secret. Tell people that I told you all this.

               ‚¤‚ŪA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ė‚ą‚Ė˜b‚́A”é–§‚É‚ĩ‚Ä‚¨‚Š‚Č‚ĸ‚悤‚ɁB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚ĒŒž‚Á‚Ŋ‚ÆŒž‚ĸ‚Č‚ŗ‚ĸB

\\        Huhun.

               Okay.

               ‚Ķ‚ņA‚Ķ‚ņB

A)           Oho. Naŋ ga ne ay ka ne.

               Right. Tell them I said all this.

               ‚¤‚ŪB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚ĒŒž‚Á‚Ŋ‚Æ‚ĸ‚ĸ‚Č‚ŗ‚ĸB

\\        To, ayyo.

               All right. I got it.

               ‚Ļ‚ĻA‚í‚Š‚č‚Ü‚ĩ‚ŊB

A)           Ni faham. Wo boŋ ay wo ga deede ni se. Ay si hambur boro kul.

               You understand? About all this, I told you. Ifm not afraid of anyone.

               ‚í‚Š‚é‚ˁB‚ą‚Ė‚ą‚Ƃɂ‚ĸ‚ẮA‚ą‚Ė‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ē‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚ÉŒę‚Á‚Ŋ‚Ė‚žB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Í’N‚ā‹°‚ę‚Č‚ĸB

\\        Ayyo.

               I understand.

               ‚í‚Š‚č‚Ü‚ĩ‚ŊB

A)           Ay si ciiney kul.

               Right. I got it.

               ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚͉Ŋ‚ā”é–§‚É‚ĩ‚Č‚ĸB

\\        Oho, to, ay faham.

               ‚Í‚ĸA‚Ļ‚ĻA‚í‚Š‚č‚Ü‚ĩ‚ŊB

A)           Ni di, ya da hero go da. Heri kul kaŋ bumbey duw'a. Amma ir wey here wo, hal ir du heri, ir Tilabeeri, ir si a waani-waani ka ne gey Teera a si duw'a ra, ka ne za i si ir tiira ra, i tiira ra i go. Ir borey no kaŋ fere ka hun ir ga ka ka ka kabu amiiru Kokor bande.Oho, ir jamaa da no, k i tun ka dira, i ne kal ba koyra a naŋ ga sey. Ir wone koyra wo, hu, hu, Gaarokoyre wo a ma hasara. Gey dungey, alfukaarey gey ma ka, gey ma ka ka dunguri ma wo. Gey ma gey bora di, gey ma a keyandi. Gey bonkoyno ne, ga ti ni ga di Isubu.

               You see? Thatfs how it is. [The chief of Saaba-Tera] makes everything his own. But us, we Tilabeeri donft distinguish when we get things. We donft say, eTera isnft going to get anything because theyfre not on our paper, and theyfre only on their paper.f Yes, they left us and registered their residency under the chief of Kokor, but they are our family. Right. They are part of us, those who left, saying they didnft care if the village was to disintegrate. [They left, saying they didnft care] even if our Gaarokoyre would be lost because of their action. eCome, poor people. Come and have some cowpeas. Find your family. Make him the leader. The chief is right here.f You know, Isbou.

               ‚í‚Š‚é‚Š‚ˁA‚ģ‚¤‚ĸ‚¤‚ā‚Ė‚žBkƒT[ƒoEƒe[ƒ‰‘ē’ˇ‚́l‚ˇ‚×‚Ä‚đŽŠ•Ē‚Ė‚ā‚Ė‚É‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĩ‚Ü‚¤‚Ė‚žB‚ĩ‚Š‚ĩ‚ą‚Ė‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘¤‚Æ‚ĸ‚Ļ‚΁A‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋƒeƒBƒ‰ƒx[ƒŠ‚́A•¨Ž‘‚đ‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚Æ‚ĩ‚Ä‚ā‹æ•Ę‚ĩ‚Č‚ĸAƒe[ƒ‰‚Í‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ĖŽ†‚Ė‚Č‚Š‚É‚ĸ‚Č‚­‚āA”Ū‚į‚ĖŽ†‚Ė‚Č‚Š‚É‚ĸ‚é‚É‚ĸ‚é‚Ė‚ž‚Š‚įA‚Ļ‚į‚ę‚Č‚ĸ‚Æ‚ÍŒž‚í‚Č‚ĸB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Š‚į—Ŗ‚ęAƒRƒRƒ‹‚ĖŽņ’ˇ‚ĖŒã‚ë‚Ő”‚Ļ‚é‚悤‚É‚Č‚Á‚Ŋ‚Æ‚Í‚ĸ‚ĻA”Ū‚į‚Í‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ėg“ā‚Č‚Ė‚ž‚Š‚įB‚¤‚ŪA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ėˆęˆõ‚Č‚Ė‚žA‘ē‚Ē•Ē—ô‚ĩ‚Ä‚ā‚Š‚Ü‚í‚Č‚ĸ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ďo‚Ä‚ĸ‚Á‚Ŋ‚Ė‚́Bk”Ū‚į‚́l‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‚ā‚Ė‚Å‚ ‚é‚ą‚Ė‘ēAƒK[ƒƒRƒCƒŒ‚Ē‚ģ‚ę‚Å‘š‚Č‚í‚ę‚Ä‚ĩ‚Ü‚Á‚Ä‚āk‚Š‚Ü‚í‚Č‚ĸ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ďo‚Ä‚ĸ‚Á‚ŊlB•nŽŌ‚æ—ˆ‚Č‚ŗ‚ĸA—ˆ‚ăTƒTƒQ‚đ–Ą‚í‚ĸ‚Č‚ŗ‚ĸAg“ā‚đ‚‚Š‚Ü‚Ļ‚Č‚ŗ‚ĸA”Ū‚𗧂Ŋ‚š‚Č‚ŗ‚ĸAŽņ’ˇ‚Í‚ą‚ą‚É‚ĸ‚éA‚‚܂čƒCƒXƒu‚žB

               Ir mey ne k ir koyra sey, ir wey koyra, za ir kaayi, ga hinne ka ka, a ka ka goro de. Hal a du boro, kaŋ ka ka tontoŋ a ga, hal koyra ka ka te jama, borey ka ka hiiji, i hay. Ir bine, ir wey koyra wo ir si fatta a ra. Amma naŋ kaŋ boro a ga ba, kul ma koy. Ya da ir go da. Ni faham.

               As for us, we were here in our village when the village disintegrated. Our ancestor, only he came and started living here. Eventually he obtained people, more people joined, and the village got bigger. People came to get married, and they had children. We? We donft leave this village. But if you want to leave, go ahead and leave. Thatfs how we do it. You understand?

‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋŽŠg‚́A‘ē‚Ē•Ē—ô‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚Æ‚Ģ‚āA‚ą‚ą‚ɁA‚ą‚Ė‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘ē‚É‚ĸ‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘cæA”Ū‚ž‚¯‚Ē‚â‚Á‚Ä—ˆ‚āAZ‚Ū‚悤‚É‚Č‚Á‚ŊB‚â‚Ē‚Ä”Ū‚͐l‚đ‚Ļ‚āA‚ģ‚ą‚É‚ ‚į‚Ŋ‚Ȑl‚Ē‰Á‚í‚čA‘ē‚Í‘å‚Ģ‚­‚Č‚Á‚ŊAl‚Ņ‚Æ‚ĒŒ‹Ĩ‚ĩ‚É—ˆ‚āAŽq‚đŽY‚ņ‚žB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‚ą‚Ė‘ē‚đ—Ŗ‚ę‚Č‚ĸB‚ž‚Ēs‚Ģ‚Ŋ‚ĸŽŌ‚́As‚¯‚΂æ‚ĸB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‚ģ‚Ė‚悤‚É‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚Ė‚žB‚í‚Š‚é‚ˁB

\\        Ay faham. Ni wo ni si ba ni ma koy no-din no. Ne da de.

               I see. So you, you donft want to go over there. This is the only place for you.

               ‚í‚Š‚č‚Ü‚ĩ‚ŊB‚ ‚Č‚Ŋ‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁA‚ ‚ŋ‚į‚ɍs‚Ģ‚Ŋ‚­‚Č‚ĸ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ˁB‚ą‚ą‚ž‚¯‚Č‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ˁB

A)           Ne de.

               This is the only place.

               ‚ą‚ą‚ž‚¯‚žB

\\        Ne Tilabeeri here.

               Here, on the Tilabeeri side.

               ‚ą‚ąƒeƒBƒ‰ƒx[ƒŠ‘¤B

A)           Tilabeeri. Ha kul sey ka Gaarokoyre, ir wey ir kaayi wo, ga ka koyra singi. Boro kul kaŋ ka naŋ ka ka, naŋ ka ka lamba a ga. Ya-din ga ir wey kaayi kaŋ naŋ koyra singi, ir ga fatta a ra? Amma bora kaŋ kokor ka ka din, hal ni di nango koroŋ ni ga, ni ga fatta. Zama da bonkoynitarey no, da ni go a ra, ni si duw'a. Ni di?

               We will stay in Tilabeeri even if Gaarokoyre was to disintegrate. Our, our ancestors, they founded the village. All people came to the village and joined them. So if our ancestors are the ones who founded the village, why would we leave? But those who come later, [for example] you, leave when itfs too hot. You leave for the chief status. Even if you stay here, you canft get it. Got that?

               ƒeƒBƒ‰ƒx[ƒŠB‚Ŋ‚Æ‚ĻƒK[ƒƒRƒCƒŒ‚Ē•Ē—ô‚ĩ‚Ä‚āB‚ą‚Ė‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ĖA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘cæA”Ū‚į‚Ē‘ē‚đ‘nŨ‚ĩ‚ŊB‚ˇ‚ׂĂĖl‚Ņ‚Æ‚Í‚ģ‚ą‚É‚â‚Á‚Ä—ˆ‚āA‚ģ‚ą‚ɉÁ‚í‚Á‚ŊB‚ž‚Š‚įA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘cæ‚ą‚ģ‚Ē‘ē‚đ‘nŨ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚ž‚Š‚įA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ēo‚Ä‚ĸ‚­‚Š‚ĸB‚ĩ‚Š‚ĩŒã‚Š‚į‚â‚Á‚Ä—ˆ‚ŊŽŌAk‚Ŋ‚Æ‚Ļ‚΁l‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚͏‹‚­‚Č‚é‚Əo‚Ä‚ĸ‚­B‚Č‚ē‚Š‚Æ‚ĸ‚Ļ‚ÎŽņ’ˇˆĘ‚Ė‚Ŋ‚ß‚žA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Í‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚Æ‚ĩ‚Ä‚āA‚ģ‚ę‚đ‚Ļ‚į‚ę‚Č‚ĸB‚ĸ‚ĸ‚ˁB

               Ir mey bine, ir koyra, ir wone koyra ra. Da bonkoyno wo bu, da ni gonda fondo ni ga koy ma ceeci d ir k i naŋ no . Ni faham. Boro wo kaŋ ni bey a go, ay winda ka cer di. Ir k ir wo te, a bisa i boro. Irkoy ne fuula samba n daŋ kaba ra. Zama ay wo baaba, ga no ma te baabo se beere. Ni faham. Ya da koyra go da.

               We stay here in our village, the village that belongs to us. If the current chief dies and if there is a way, you will seek the status. You see? The person who is in the position [the chief of Saaba-Tera], the one you also know, came to my house and we helped him. But now he is more powerful than the rest of the family. Itfs Godfs will. God said to give the chief status in his hands. Thatfs because my father, he is the elder brother of the father [of the chief of Saaba-Tera]. You understand? Thatfs how the village works.

               ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Æ‚ĸ‚Ļ‚΁A‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘ēA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‚ā‚Ė‚Å‚ ‚é‘ē‚É‚ĸ‚éBĄ‚ĖŽņ’ˇ‚ĒŽ€‚ņ‚ŁA‚ā‚ĩ‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚É•û“r‚Ē‚ ‚é‚Ė‚Č‚įA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Í‚ģ‚ę‚đ‚ā‚Æ‚ß‚é‚Ė‚žB‚í‚Š‚é‚ˁB‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚ā’m‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚ģ‚ą‚É‚ĸ‚éŽŌkƒT[ƒoEƒe[ƒ‰‘ē’ˇl‚́A‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ė‰Ž•~‚ɏW‚Ü‚čA‚ą‚Ė‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ē‚ģ‚¤‚ĩ‚Ä‚â‚Á‚Ŋ‚Ė‚ɁA‚ĸ‚Ü‚â‚ģ‚Ėg“ā‚đ‰z‚Ļ‚Ä‚ĸ‚éB_‚Ē‚¨‚Á‚ĩ‚á‚Á‚Ŋ‚Ė‚žAŽņ’ˇˆĘ‚đŽæ‚Á‚āAŽč‚É’u‚ĸ‚Ä‚â‚ęA‚ƁB‚Č‚ē‚Č‚į‚ą‚Ė‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ė•ƒA”Ū‚́kƒT[ƒoEƒe[ƒ‰‘ē’ˇl‚Ė•ƒ‚ĖŒZ‚ž‚Š‚į‚žB‚í‚Š‚é‚Š‚ˁB‘ē‚Í‚ą‚Ė‚悤‚É‚ ‚é‚Ė‚žB

\\        Huun.

               I see.

               ‚Ķ‚¤‚ņB

A)           Amma ay ga deede ni se, borey wey kaŋ gey mey ni bande wo, i si ha kul bey. I si.

               But I will tell you. Those guys behind you, they donft know anything. They donft know anything.

               ‚ĩ‚Š‚ĩ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Í‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚ÉŒę‚Á‚Ä‚â‚낤A‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚ĖŒã‚ë‚É‚ĸ‚éŽŌ‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁA”Ū‚į‚͉Ŋ‚Š‚ā’m‚į‚Č‚ĸB’m‚į‚Č‚ĸB

\\        I si.

               They donft know anything.

               ’m‚į‚Č‚ĸB

A)           I si.

               Anything.

               ’m‚į‚Č‚ĸB

\\        Ley!

               Anything at all.

               ‚Ü‚Á‚Ŋ‚­B

A)           Zama, ir kaŋ ni di, boro kaŋ ni ga wo, ciiney ga har ni se, gey kaayey,cowey de d i ka.

               Because let me tell you a secret about those guys behind you. Their ancestors only came on foot.

               ‚Č‚ē‚Č‚įA‚ą‚Ė‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚́A‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Æ‚Æ‚ā‚É‚ĸ‚élŠÔ‚ɂ‚ĸ‚Ä“ā‚Řb‚ĩ‚Ä‚â‚낤A‚ģ‚Ė‘cæ‚Í‘Ģ‚ž‚¯‚Å—ˆ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚žB

\\        Huhun.

               I see.

               ‚Ķ‚Ū‚Ķ‚ŪB

A)           Oho.

               Right.

               ‚¤‚ŪB

\\        Cowey de d i ka.

               They only came on foot.

               ‘Ģ‚ž‚¯‚Å—ˆ‚ŊB

A)           Cowey de d i ka.

               They only came on foot.

               ‘Ģ‚ž‚¯‚Å—ˆ‚ŊB

\\        Huhun.

               I see.

               ‚Ķ‚Ū‚Ķ‚ŪB

A)           Guraawa wo, i asilo, manti kal de hendi...

               Gouraawa is, its origin is there . . .

               ƒOƒ‰[ƒ‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚Ė‚́A‚ģ‚Ė‹NŒš‚́A‚ ‚Á‚ŋ‚ĖcB

\\        Yuuni-boro?

               You mean, Yuuni Boro?

               ƒ†[ƒjEƒ{ƒ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           Yuuni-borey din. I man jin ka goro kal hendi, Saakoyre ganda koyra fo kaŋ si i ga ne..., koyra ma faara. No-din i kaayi jin ka goro. I tun koyra din ra, i ka ka huro ir koyra ra. Zama i sinda naŋ k i ga, i sinda labu k i ga goy. Yuuni-borey din. I ka ka goro Fuliyande. Ir kaayi wo n i no labo, i ka ka zumbu. I gana ka koy gura hendi Deesa. Deesa mo ga no n ir dabari, ga mo ne i noguriya de, a ne i ma koy zumb a ga. Belley ne i si goro no zaati. I ne i ma fend'ey. Ga ti Guraawa din, i ka, i na gey gora te, hal hoŋo i ka ka te jama. Ni di wala?

               Right, Yuuni borey. They were originally there, in the village south of Saakoyre. I forget the name. Their ancestors originally lived there. They left there and came to our village. This is because they didnft have, they didnft have land to work in. Yuuni borey moved to Fuliyande. Our very ancestors gave them land, and because of that, they settled here. They went all the way to Dessa Island. Dessa was controlling us at that time. He also told them [to go] there, to move there. Bella said they would not actually settle there so we should just leave them alone. Thatfs Gouraawa. They came here, settled, and came to power these days. All right?

               ‚ģ‚Ėƒ†[ƒjEƒ{ƒŒƒCB”Ū‚į‚́A‚ģ‚ā‚ģ‚ā‚ ‚ģ‚ąAƒT[ƒRƒCƒŒ‚Ė‰ē‚É‚ ‚é‘ēA–ŧ‘O‚đ–Y‚ę‚Ä‚ĩ‚Ü‚Á‚Ŋ‚æB”Ū‚į‚Ė‘cæ‚Í‚ā‚Æ‚ā‚Æ‚ģ‚ą‚ɏZ‚ņ‚Å‚ĸ‚ŊB‚ģ‚ą‚đo‚āA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘ē‚É“ü‚Á‚Ä—ˆ‚ŊB‚Č‚ē‚Č‚įA”Ū‚į‚Í‚ā‚Ŋ‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊAŽŠ•Ē‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ē“­‚­“y’n‚đ‚ā‚Ŋ‚Č‚Š‚Á‚Ŋ‚Š‚į‚žB‚ģ‚Ėƒ†[ƒjEƒ{ƒŒƒC‚́BƒtƒŠƒAƒ“ƒf‚ɈڏZ‚ĩ‚Ä—ˆ‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘cæ‚ą‚ģ‚Ē”Ū‚į‚É“y’n‚đ—^‚ĻA‚ģ‚ę‚Å”Ū‚į‚Í’čZ‚ĩ‚ŊB”Ū‚į‚Í‚ ‚Á‚ŋ‚Ėƒf[ƒT“‡‚܂ōs‚Á‚ŊBƒf[ƒT‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚đŽw}‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚킯‚ž‚ĒA”Ū‚ā‚ģ‚ĖęŠ‚Ɂks‚¯l‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊA‚ģ‚ą‚Ɉڂę‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊBƒxƒbƒ‰‚Í”Ū‚į‚Ē‚ļ‚Á‚ŗ‚ĸ‚É‚Í’čZ‚ĩ‚Č‚ĸ‚ž‚낤‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚Ų‚¤‚Á‚Ä‚¨‚ą‚¤‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚ģ‚ę‚ĒƒOƒ‰[ƒ‚žA”Ū‚į‚Í—ˆ‚āA’čZ‚ĩAĄ“ú¨—Í‚đ‚Č‚ˇ‚悤‚É‚Č‚Á‚ŊB‚ĸ‚ĸ‚ˁB

\\        Ay diy'a.

               I see.

               ‚í‚Š‚č‚Ü‚ĩ‚ŊB

A)           Ni faham.

               You got it?

               ‚í‚Š‚Á‚Ŋ‚ˁB

\\        Ay faham.

               I got it.

               ‚í‚Š‚č‚Ü‚ĩ‚ŊB

A)           Gey ar, ar taaci de no. Gey ga ka ka hay hal...

               Those guys, itfs only four guys. They came and had children . . .

               ‚ģ‚Ė’jA’j4l‚ž‚¯‚žB”Ū‚į‚Ē‚â‚Á‚Ä—ˆ‚ÄŽq‚đŽY‚ŨcB

\\        Ar taaci hinne?

               Only four guys?

               ’j4l‚ž‚¯‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           Ar taaci hinne.

               Only four guys.

               ’j4l‚ž‚¯B

\\        May da may da may?

               Who were those guys?

’N‚ƁA’N‚ƁA’N‚ƁA’N‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           I si ne kala, wo, Surgo. Surgo Dullaahi.

               They were Sourgo. Sourgo Dullahi.

‚ģ‚ę‚́AƒXƒ‹ƒSBƒXƒ‹ƒSEƒhƒDƒbƒ‰[ƒq[12]B

\\        Huhun. Surgo Dullaahi. Ayyo.

               All right. Sourgo Dullahi. I see.

‚Ķ‚Ū‚Ķ‚ŪBƒXƒ‹ƒSEƒhƒDƒbƒ‰[ƒqB‚Č‚é‚Ų‚ĮB

A)           I ma ne, Koobaaba.

               Kobaaba, too.

ƒR[ƒo[ƒo[13]‚āB

\\        Hahan. Koobaaba. Oho, Yuuni-boro.

               Oh, Kobaaba. Right. Yuuni borey.

‚ ‚ AƒR[ƒo[ƒoB‚¤‚ņAƒ†[ƒjEƒ{ƒŒƒCB

A)           Yuuni-borey. Oho. To. Ni di wala?

               Yuuni borey. Right. Understand?

               ƒ†[ƒjEƒ{ƒŒƒCB‚¤‚ŪB‚í‚Š‚Á‚Ŋ‚Š‚ˁB

\\        Huhun.

               I see.

               ‚Ķ‚ņ‚Ķ‚ņB

A)           To, Surgo Dullaahi gorokasino, kaŋ i si ga ne kal Minta

               ‚¤‚ŪAƒXƒ‹ƒSEƒhƒDƒbƒ‰[ƒq‚Ė”ē—ĩA”Ū—‚đƒ~ƒ“ƒ^‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB

Hmm. The wife of Sourgo Dullahi was Minta.

\\        Minta Koobaaba.

               Minta Kobaaba.

               ƒ~ƒ“ƒ^EƒR[ƒo[ƒoB

A)           Minta Koobaaba. Koobaaba, wo, weyma no ya. A weyma no ya. Oho. Abdu. Abdu Koobaaba weyma no ya. Ikkul Koobaaba izey no, Minta Koobaaba, Abdu Koobaaba. Sumeyru Koobaaba. Sumeyru Koobaaba wo ga haama ti M.M. wo kaŋ wan d'ey go car bande. Ni faham.

               Minta Kobaaba, Kobaabafs sister. His sister. Right. Abdu, Abdu Kobaabafs sister. They are all Kobaabafs children. Minta Kobaaba, Abdu Kobaaba, and Soumair Kobaaba. One of the descendants of this Soumair Kobaaba is M.M., the guy you are with. You see?

               ƒ~ƒ“ƒ^EƒR[ƒo[ƒoBƒR[ƒo[ƒo‚ĖŽo–…‚žB‚ģ‚ĖŽo–…‚žB‚¤‚ŪBƒAƒuƒhƒDBƒAƒuƒhƒDEƒR[ƒo[ƒo[14]‚ĖŽo–…‚žB‚Ũ‚ČƒR[ƒo[ƒo‚ĖŽq‚žAƒ~ƒ“ƒ^EƒR[ƒo[ƒoAƒAƒuƒhƒDEƒR[ƒo[ƒoBƒXƒƒCƒ‹EƒR[ƒo[ƒo[15]B‚ą‚ĖƒXƒƒCƒ‹EƒR[ƒo[ƒo[‚ĖŽq‘ˇ‚ĒA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ēˆę‚É‚ĸ‚éM.M.[16]‚žB‚í‚Š‚é‚ˁB

\\        Ay faham ya.

               Yes, I do.

               ‚í‚Š‚č‚Ü‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚Æ‚āB

A)           I ka ka goro. Abdu Koobaaba wo kaŋ a ka tubey ti borey kaŋ cindi din kaŋ ni ga di, kul izey no. Oho. Tubey izey no, ga ti ariizo. I hun Saayeni. Saayeni i hun ka ka zumb Guraawa. Saayeni. No ti i koyra. No-din i naŋ gana kokor bande biya ka tun no i ka ka huro ir koyra. Ni faham.

They moved here. The rest [of those in the Gouraawa settlement] you know are descedants of the nephew and the niece of this Abdu Kobaaba. Hmm. The nephew and the niece. They are the male descendants. They came from Sayani. They left Sayani and moved to Graawa. Sayani. Thatfs their village. They left there, migrated, and came to our village. You see?

               ˆÚZ‚ĩ‚Ä—ˆ‚ŊB‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚ā’m‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚Ė‚ą‚股‚ׂĂĖkƒOƒ‰[ƒW—Ž‚ĖlŽŌ‚́A‚ą‚ĖƒAƒuƒhƒDEƒR[ƒo[ƒo‚ĖƒIƒC‚ƃƒC‚ĖŽq‘ˇ‚žB‚¤‚ŪBƒIƒC‚ƃƒCA‚ģ‚ę‚Ē’j‚ĖŽq‘ˇBƒT[ƒBƒGƒj‚Š‚į—ˆ‚ŊBƒT[ƒBƒGƒj‚đ—Ŗ‚ęAƒOƒ‰[ƒ‚ɈڂÁ‚Ä‚Ģ‚ŊBƒT[ƒBƒGƒjB‚ģ‚ą‚Ē”Ū‚į‚Ė‘ē‚žBŒã‚Š‚į‚ģ‚ą‚đ”­‚Á‚āAˆÚZ‚ĩA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘ē‚É“ü‚Á‚Ä—ˆ‚ŊB‚í‚Š‚é‚ˁB

\\        Huhun.

               I see.

               ‚Ķ‚ņ‚Ķ‚ņB

A)           To, Bonkajerey mey kaŋ ni ga ma i ga ne-wo, gey mey kokor banda i tun hendi Gurzugey. I tun Guruzugey, i ka ne, i ka ka huro ir se, i huro ir koyra ra. Ir kaaga wo a n i kabu. In d'ey ka ka goro. Hala dumb ka ka hiiji ka hay calla, hoŋo dumo kul huro calla. Ni di?

               As for Bonkajerey, whom you know are here, they came later all the way from Gourouzgey. They left Gourouzgey, came here, and joined us. They joined our village. Our ancestors let them live here. We and they started living together. They came, married to our people, and now our dumis are mixed. You got that?

               ‚¤‚ŪA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚ā‚ą‚ą‚É‚ĸ‚é‚ą‚Æ‚đ’m‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚éƒ{ƒ“ƒJƒWƒFƒŒƒC‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁA”Ū‚į‚͌り‚įA‰“‚­ƒOƒ‹ƒYƒQƒC‚Š‚į‚â‚Á‚Ä—ˆ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚žBƒOƒ‹ƒYƒQƒC‚đo‚āA‚ą‚ą‚É—ˆ‚āA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‚Č‚Š‚É“ü‚Á‚ŊA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘ē‚Ė‚Č‚Š‚É“ü‚Á‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘cæ‚Ē”Ū‚į‚𐔂Ļ‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Æ”Ū‚į‚Í‚Æ‚ā‚ɏZ‚Ū‚悤‚É‚Č‚Á‚ŊB—§‚ŋ“ü‚Á‚Ä‚Ģ‚ÄŒ‹Ĩ‚ĩ‚ ‚ĸAĄ‚âƒhƒDƒ~‚͍Ŧ‚´‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚éB‚ĸ‚ĸ‚ˁB

\\        Huhun.

               I see.

               ‚Ķ‚ņ‚Ķ‚ņB

A)           Oho. I hiiji ir jine borey ra, i hay i ga. Ni di? Ir borey mey kaŋ tun jerey hiiji, izey, i hay i ga. Hoŋo in d'ey ka, ir ka ka huro calla. Amma d ni ka ka hã ya-cine i ga, boro kul ne i asilo cowo ga. Ni di wala?

               Mm. They married our ancestors and had children. All right? Some of our ancestors got married and had children as well. Now we and they, we are mixed. But if you ask anyone about them, they will say they came later on foot. Do you understand?

               ‚¤‚ŪB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘cæ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‚Č‚Š‚ÅŒ‹Ĩ‚ĩAŽq‚đŽY‚ņ‚žB‚ĸ‚ĸ‚ˁB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ėg“ā‚āAˆę•”‚ĒŒ‹Ĩ‚ĩAŽq‚đŽY‚ņ‚žBĄ‚â‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Æ”Ū‚į‚́A‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚́AŦ‚´‚č‚ ‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚éB‚ĩ‚Š‚ĩ‚ą‚¤‚ĩ‚Ä”Ū‚į‚ɂ‚ĸ‚Ä‚Ŋ‚¸‚Ë‚Ä‚Ũ‚ę‚΁A‚ģ‚Ė‹NŒš‚Í‘Ģ‚É‚ ‚é‚Æ‚Ũ‚Č‚ĒŒž‚¤B‚í‚Š‚é‚ˁB

\\        Ay diy'a.

               I understand.

               ‚í‚Š‚č‚Ü‚ĩ‚ŊB

A)           Oho. Amma ir wey koyra. Ir F..., Gaarokoyre wo, Gaarokoyre wo hal ni ga ba fahama noŋ kul kaŋ ni hã, ni koy huwey do, d i naŋ na hã, koyra fo da n goro Gaarokoyre d ir daŋ. Annasaarey meytara wo ra, batumo noŋ kul kaŋ naŋ tiira ka tarey, i ne Gaarokoyre, kul i ga ne i se Wogey fa. Zama Gaarokoyre wo ma ga hal Fulansi I si a tuusu. Ni di?

               Right. But this village of ours. About our Fu-, this Gaarokoyre. If you want answers to your questions, go home, and if people ask you what village you stayed at, [tell them] itfs this Gaarokoyre. Under the rule of whites, every place is spelled out on paper. According to whites, Gaarokoyre is a village of Wogos because there is another Gaarokoyre in France. They wouldnft erase that one. You understand?

               ‚¤‚ŪB‚ĩ‚Š‚ĩ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‚ą‚Ė‘ē‚́B‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ĖƒtcA‚ą‚ĖƒK[ƒƒRƒCƒŒ‚ɂ‚ĸ‚Ä‚žB‚ā‚ĩ‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ē‹^–â‚ÉŽv‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚ą‚Æ‚đ—‰đ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ĸ‚Ė‚Č‚įA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ē‰Æ‚É‹A‚čAl‚Ē‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚É‚Į‚ņ‚Č‘ē‚ɏZ‚ņ‚ž‚Ė‚Š‚Æ‚Ŋ‚¸‚Ë‚Ŋ‚įA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‚ĸ‚éƒK[ƒƒRƒCƒŒ‚žk‚Æ“š‚Ļ‚Č‚ŗ‚ĸlB‚ą‚Ė”’l‚ĖŽx”z‚Ė‚Č‚Š‚ł́A‚ ‚į‚ä‚éęŠ‚ÍŽ†‚ɏ‘‚Š‚ę‚Ä•\š‘ŋ‚É‚ŗ‚ę‚éAƒK[ƒƒRƒCƒŒ‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁA˜A’†‚Í”Ū‚į‚ɃEƒHƒS‚Å‚ˇ‚æA‚Æ‚ĸ‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚éB‚Č‚ē‚Č‚į‚ą‚ąƒK[ƒƒRƒCƒŒ‚Ė–ŧ‚̓tƒ‰ƒ“ƒX‚É‚ā‚ ‚é‚Š‚į‚žB‚ģ‚ę‚đÁ‚ģ‚¤‚Æ‚ĩ‚Č‚ĸB‚í‚Š‚é‚ˁB

\\        Huhun.

               Huh.

               ‚Ķ‚ņ‚Ķ‚ņB

A)           To, ha kaŋ cindi wo kul koyra ma koyra jine de no. Ga ti ni ga di borey wey kaŋ ni huwo, ni di, i go car bande, jerey din, i go de. Amma manti Wogey ga warga. Sanga ni bey kaŋ ciiney ga muraadu feeri. Oho.

               Hmm. In all the other villages, there is only a name of the one who came to the village first. But in your home . . . You see? Some of those who are here [in this village] are just here. It doesnft mean Wogos are prosperous. This kind of secret conversation resolves issues. Hmm.

               ‚¤‚ŪA‚Ų‚Š‚Ė‘ē‚ˇ‚ׂĂɂ‚ĸ‚ẮA‘ē‚ɐæ‚É—ˆ‚ŊŽŌ‚Ė–ŧ‘O‚ž‚¯‚Ē‚ ‚é‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚Ė‚É‚žB‚ģ‚ę‚ĒA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ė‰Æ‚Å‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁcA‚ĸ‚ĸ‚ˁAk‚ą‚Ė‘ē‚Łlˆę‚É‚ĸ‚éŽŌ‚Ė‚¤‚ŋAˆę•”‚́A‚Ŋ‚ž‚ĸ‚é‚ž‚¯‚žB‚ĩ‚Š‚ĩƒEƒHƒS‚Ē”ė‚Ļ‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚킯‚Å‚Í‚Č‚ĸ‚Ė‚žB‚ą‚Ė‚悤‚ɁA“ā˜b‚Ē–â‘č‚đ‰đŒˆ‚ˇ‚é‚Ė‚ž‚æB‚¤‚ŪB

\\        Huun.

               Huh.

               ‚Ķ‚¤‚ņB

A)           To, guna ya da ir go. Amma ni wo yow ti ni. Kaŋ ni ka ni si gorey bey, ni ka de koyra ra. Ayyo. Kaŋ ti Suley yoŋ wey, kaŋ ni di wan d'ey go, gey dey ti ir borey kaŋ ni ga bey. Zama yow wo, nongo k i na a kubey d a goro. Manti ya-din.

               Right. Listen. Thatfs how we do it. But you, you are our guest. When you came, you didnft come to live here. You just came to visit the village. Sourey and other guys, who are with you, were the only family of ours you knew. This is because guests stay wherever they have been welcomed. Am I right?

               ‚¤‚ŪA‚ĸ‚ĸ‚Š‚ˁA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‚ģ‚Ė‚悤‚É‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚Ė‚žB‚ĩ‚Š‚ĩA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚ɂ‚ĸ‚Ä‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Í‹ql‚žB‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ē—ˆ‚Ŋ‚Æ‚ĢA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚͏Z‚ņ‚Å‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚킯‚Å‚Í‚Č‚­A‚Ŋ‚ž‘ē‚É—ˆ‚ŊB‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Æˆę‚É‚ĸ‚é‚ ‚ĖƒXƒŒƒC‚Ŋ‚ŋA”Ū‚į‚ž‚¯‚Ē‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ē’m‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ėg“ā‚ž‚Á‚ŊB‹ql‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚Ė‚́AoŒ}‚Ļ‚į‚ę‚Ŋ‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚ɏZ‚Ū‚ā‚Ė‚ž‚Š‚į‚žB‚ģ‚¤‚ž‚낤B

\\        Ya-din de no.

               Thatfs true.

               ‚ģ‚¤‚Å‚ˇB

A)           Ir Zarma ciino ra. Oho. Sohoŋ waato kaŋ ni ka, hal i man ni kubey, manti ni goro. Ni bey ni ga bisa.

               In Zarma, [this is what we say]. Hmm. For example, when you came, if we hadnft welcomed you, you wouldnft have stayed here. Thatfs what we say in Zarma. You see? You would have passed us by.

               ƒUƒ‹ƒ}Œę‚ł́k‚ą‚¤Œž‚¤lB‚¤‚ŪB‚Ŋ‚Æ‚Ļ‚΂¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ē‚â‚Á‚Ä—ˆ‚Ŋ‚Æ‚ĢA‚ā‚ĩ‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚đŒ}‚Ļ‚Ä‚ĸ‚Č‚Š‚Á‚Ŋ‚Æ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚įA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚͏Z‚Ü‚Č‚ĸBƒUƒ‹ƒ}Œę‚Å‚Í‚ą‚¤Œž‚¤‚Ė‚žB‚í‚Š‚é‚ˁA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚͒ʂ股‚Ŧ‚Ä‚ĩ‚Ü‚¤‚ž‚낤B

\\        Huun. Ay go.

               Huh. Thatfs true.

               ‚Ķ‚¤‚ņB‚ģ‚¤‚Å‚ˇB

A)           To, ánongo k i ga n kubeyâ, to, ir Zarma ciino ra, wo ti senni. Ni di?

               Right. eWhere they welcome you.f Thatfs what we say in our language, Zarma. All right?

               ‚ģ‚¤AuoŒ}‚Ļ‚Ä‚­‚ę‚é‚Æ‚ą‚ëvA‚¤‚ŪA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ĖƒUƒ‹ƒ}Œę‚Å‚Í‚ą‚¤Œž‚¤‚Ė‚žB‚ĸ‚ĸ‚ˁB

\\        Huhun.

               I see.

               ‚Ķ‚ņ‚Ķ‚ņB

A)           Oho. Wo no ay ga n fahamandi nd'a. Amma da Irkoy te ni du baani, ni ye da n hangasi kaŋ fo kaŋ dogo ra, ha kul kaŋ de naŋ ne, sohoŋ borey wey i si war se ga deede ni se. Amma de a naŋ deede de. In d'ey i si calla. Zama nga wo k i na samb ka daŋ jina, a naŋ ka ka bora kul fey fey fey fey fey fey ka ka waani. Kal de nga kal ga borey. Kaayo man fuula mey, baabo man fuula mey, bumbo wo fuula mey, i dumo man di ka te bonkoyni, i si de kal ir borey bande. Hoŋo a ka, bi fo da no i na keyandi ya-cine, a huro yoŋo kul sohoŋ man to jiiri gu. A ga koy Teera, a ga ne ya-cine, a ga ne ya-cine, hal hoŋo gan d'a Teera borey i ga ma, d ey du ga ka se ne i ga kat'a i se. Ni di wala?

               Hmm. I helped you realize that. But even if God made you healthy and even if you got yourself a wife here, those guys wouldnft tell you what Ifve told you. They will just say things. We and they are not together. This is because he [the chief of Saaba-Tera], who has been chosen as the headman, distinguishes between himself and his family, and others. His grandfather did not have the status of chief. His father did not have the status of chief either. He received the status of chief. That dumi could not get the status of chief. They were under our family. But it came today [they received the status of chief]. It happened only recently. Itfs been less than five years since he became the chief. He went to Tera and explained, eThis is whatfs happening. This is whatfs happening,f and he became close to the people of Tera. He received the status of chief with their help. Got it?

               ‚¤‚ŪB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Í‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚É‚ģ‚¤‚ĸ‚¤‚ą‚Æ‚đ‚í‚Š‚į‚š‚Ŋ‚Ė‚žB‚ĩ‚Š‚ĩA‚ā‚ĩ_‚Ē‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚đŒ’N‚É‚ĩ‚Ä‚­‚ž‚ŗ‚čA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ē‚ģ‚Ėę‚Å”ē—ĩ‚đ›W‚Á‚Ŋ‚Æ‚ĩ‚Ä‚āA‚ģ‚Ėl‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚́A‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ē‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚ÉŒę‚Á‚Ŋ‚ą‚Æ‚đA‚Ü‚é‚Å‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚ÉŒę‚į‚Č‚ĸB‚Ŋ‚žŒę‚é‚ž‚¯‚žB ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Æ”Ū‚į‚Í‚Æ‚ā‚É‚ ‚é‚킯‚Å‚Í‚Č‚ĸB‚Č‚ē‚Č‚įA‘I‚΂ę‚Ä‘O‚É’u‚Š‚ę‚Ŋ”ŪkƒT[ƒoEƒe[ƒ‰‘ē’ˇl‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁA”Ū‚͐l‚đ×X×X‚Æ‹æ•Ę‚ˇ‚éBŽŠ•ĒŽŠg‚Æ‚ģ‚Ėg“ā‚đˆČŠO‚đB‘c•ƒ‚ÍŽņ’ˇˆĘ‚đŠ—L‚ĩ‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊA•ƒ‚āŽņ’ˇˆĘ‚đŠ—L‚ĩ‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊA”ŪŽŠg‚ĒŽņ’ˇˆĘ‚đ‚Ļ‚ŊB‚ ‚ĖƒhƒDƒ~‚ÍŽņ’ˇˆĘ‚đ‚Ļ‚į‚ę‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ėg“ā‚ĖŒã‚ë‚É‚ĸ‚ŊBĄ“ú‚ģ‚ę‚Í—ˆ‚ŊkŽņ’ˇˆĘ‚đ‚Ļ‚ŊlA‚ĩ‚Š‚ĩ‚‚ĸÅ‹ß—§‚Á‚Ŋ‚Ė‚žA”Ū‚ĒŽņ’ˇ‚ɏA”C‚ĩ‚Ä‚Š‚į‚Ü‚ž5”N‚ā‚Ŋ‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚Č‚ĸB”Ū‚̓e[ƒ‰‚ɍs‚Á‚āA‚ą‚¤‚ĸ‚¤‚킯‚Č‚ņ‚Å‚ˇA‚ą‚¤‚ĸ‚¤‚킯‚Č‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚āA‚ģ‚¤‚ĩ‚Ä”Ū‚ƃe[ƒ‰‚Ėl‚Ņ‚Æ‚Í’‡—Į‚­‚Č‚čA”Ū‚Í‚ģ‚ę‚ɏ•‚¯‚į‚ę‚āA”Ū‚į‚Š‚įkŽņ’ˇˆĘ‚đl‚ā‚Á‚Ä‚Ģ‚Ä‚ā‚į‚Á‚ŊB‚ĸ‚ĸ‚Š‚ˁB

kŒã—Ēl

[Later part omitted]

 

1-6.  AHA‚Å‚¨‚ą‚éŒW‘ˆ‚ɂ‚ĸ‚ā@Regarding disputes at the irrigated farmland

k‘O—Ēl[Earlier part omitted]

\\        Senno wo no ay ga ba ay ma ye ka hã ni se koyne. Ya-dinga jina, to, no-din Saaba-Teera koyra singi yoŋ senno ra, jina ciito senno go no wala?

               Ifd like to ask you about that story one more time. So first of all, letfs see, when you told me about the establishment of the village of Saaba-Tera, there was a story about a trial, right?

               ‚ģ‚Ė˜b‚ɂ‚ĸ‚āA‚ā‚¤ˆę“x‚¤‚Š‚Ē‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚ĸ‚Ė‚Å‚ˇB‚ž‚Š‚į‚Ü‚¸A‚Ļ‚Ļ‚ƁA‚ģ‚Á‚ŋ‚É‚ ‚éƒT[ƒoEƒe[ƒ‰‘ē‘nŨ‚É‚Š‚ņ‚ˇ‚邨˜b‚Ė‚Č‚Š‚ŁA‚Ü‚¸Ų”ģ‚Ė˜b‚Ē‚ ‚č‚Ü‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚æ‚ˁB

A)           Ciito senno?

               A story about a trial.

               Ų”ģ‚Ė˜bB

\\        Oho. Sanga pala ciito senno.

               Yes. The story about a trial over farmland.

               ‚Ļ‚ĻB‚Å‚ˇ‚Š‚įŒl”Č‹æ‚đ‚ß‚Ž‚éŲ”ģ‚Ė˜bB

A)           Pala ciito.

               A trial over farmland.

               Œl”Č‹æ‚ĖŲ”ģB

\\        Oho. Pala ciito no ka tun...

               Right. There was a trial over farmland, and . . .

               ‚Ļ‚ĻBŒl”Č‹æ‚đ‚ß‚Ž‚éŲ”ģ‚Ē‹N‚Ģ‚ācB

A)           Wallaahi ciito senno.

               Wallahi, the story about a trial.

               ƒƒbƒ‰[ƒqAŲ”ģ‚Ė˜bB

\\        Wo ciito fo dumi no. May no i te d'a. May da may no ka yenge da.

               What was the trial about? Who started it? Who were involved?

               ‚ģ‚ę‚Í‚Į‚¤‚ĸ‚¤Ų”ģ‚ž‚Á‚Ŋ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB’N‚Ē‚ģ‚ę‚đ‹N‚ą‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB’N‚Æ’N‚Ē‚ģ‚ą‚Å‘ˆ‚Á‚Ŋ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           Ciito. Oho. Ciito wo Isubu yoŋ wo de no ka te ciito. Ciito din ma gana hala a ka ka du. Borey ka ka cer di, hal ciito ban, gey borey kaŋ na car di, i ne ya-din ga gey ga te yaamo jine fun. Sohoŋ ciito din, heri no kaŋ, i ne jine boro daŋ. Annasaarey ne jine boro daŋ paley wey se. Borey mey gey no ma hawgey da paley. Da ni ga taali te palaa ra, ni pala ne, ay wono ne, d ey tun ka koy ka ka koy ka, wo zafa ka ne haro ma hun ni wono ra ka huro ay wono ra, de i di ga ni jukke zambar. Wo kaŋ se n a te. Da n almaney ni ni taŋ i ka ka koy ma ŋa, i ga n jukke zambar hinka. Da n naŋ torka cendi ka daŋ ay pala ra, za janda ga hiri ya-cine, torka zigi za n koy, ni ne ay palaa lalaba keyri, ka ne torka a ma bisa ni ga ba ma jeeje. I ga n jukke. To, guna pala yenga ne.

               The trial. Hmm. The trial was, Isbou and his followers filed the lawsuit. They saw to it that the trial would happen. People had gathered and waited until the trial was over. Those who gathered, they said, eLetfs just make someone a headman.f Now, [what] the lawsuit [was] it led them to appoint a headman. Whites came and said, eAppoint a headman [= a delegate]f for the farmland. These people were going to be in charge of the farmland. Letfs say youfve caused some trouble at the farmland. Your farmland is there, and mine is here. Then if [you] broke the dike between our land to drain water out of your farmland into mine, they [the delegates] will catch you and impose a fine of 5,000 CFA franc on you. They created [the delegates] for that purpose. If you unleash your livestock and have them eat rice, you will face a 10,000 CFA franc fine. Or you bring an oxcart to my farmland and leave it there. The flooding season comes and water inundates farmland like this. Then you pull out your oxcart, load it, pull it across my farmland, and you destroy ridges in my land. Then you will get fined. You see? These are what disputes over farmland are about.

               Ų”ģB‚¤‚ŪB‚ģ‚ĖŲ”ģ‚́AƒCƒXƒu‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ĒŲ”ģ‚đ‚¨‚ą‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚žB‚ģ‚ĖŲ”ģ‚Ē‚¨‚ą‚é‚悤‚É‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚žBŲ”ģ‚ĒI‚í‚é‚܂Ől‚Ņ‚Æ‚ĒW‚Ü‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚ž‚ĒA‚ģ‚ĖW‚Ü‚Á‚ŊŽŌA”Ū‚į‚́A‚Æ‚É‚Š‚­‘O‚Őļ‚Ģ‚éŽŌ‚đ‚‚­‚낤‚ÆŒž‚Á‚Ŋ‚Ė‚žB‚ŗ‚Ä‚ģ‚ĖŲ”ģ‚Ƃ́k‚Į‚¤‚ĸ‚¤‚ā‚Ė‚ž‚Á‚Ŋ‚Š‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁlA‚ģ‚Ė‚ą‚ƂŁA”Ū‚į‚́u‘O‚Ėlv‚đ’u‚ą‚¤‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB”’l‚Ē—ˆ‚āA‚ą‚ĖŒl”Č‹æ‚Ė‚Ŋ‚߂Ɂu‘O‚Ėlk‘ã•\l‚đ’u‚¯v‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚ģ‚Ėl‚Ņ‚Æ‚ĒŒl”Č‹æ‚đŠÄ“‚ˇ‚é‚Ė‚žB‚Ŋ‚Æ‚Ļ‚΂¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚ĒŒl”Č‹æ‚Å–â‘č‚đ‚¨‚ą‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚Æ‚ĩ‚悤A‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚ĖŒl”Č‹æ‚Ē‚ģ‚ą‚É‚ ‚čA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ė‚ā‚Ė‚Ē‚ą‚ą‚É‚ ‚éA‚ģ‚ę‚Łk‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚ĒlAu‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ė‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚Š‚į…‚Ēo‚āA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ė‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚É“ü‚é‚悤‚Ɂv‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ÄŒl‚đ‰ķ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚Æ‚ˇ‚é‚ƁA”Ū‚įk‘ã•\l‚Í‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚đ‚‚Š‚Ü‚Ļ‚āA5,000CFAƒtƒ‰ƒ“‚Ė”ą‹ā‚đ‰Č‚ˇB‚ģ‚¤‚ˇ‚é‚Ŋ‚߂Ɂk‘ã•\‚đl‚‚­‚Á‚ŊB‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ē‰Æ’{‚đ‚Í‚Č‚Á‚āAƒCƒl‚đH‚ׂŗ‚š‚悤‚Æ‚ˇ‚é‚ƁA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚É‚Í10,000CFA‚Ė”ą‹ā‚Ē‰Č‚ŗ‚ę‚éB‚ ‚é‚ĸ‚́A‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ē‹ŽÔ‚đˆø’Ŗ‚Á‚Ä‚Ģ‚Ä‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚ĖŒl”Č‹æ‚Ė‚Č‚Š‚É“ü‚ę‚Ä‚¨‚­B‘…Šú‚Ē—ˆ‚Ä‚ą‚Ė‚悤‚ɐ…Z‚ĩ‚É‚Č‚éB‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ē‹ŽÔ‚đˆø‚Ģ‚ ‚°‚É‚ĸ‚Á‚āA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ē‰×•¨‚đ‚‚ņ‚Å‹ŽÔ‚đ‰ĄØ‚į‚š‚悤‚Æ‚ĩ‚āA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚ĖŒl”Č‹æ‚Ė¤‚đ‰ķ‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĩ‚Ü‚¤‚ƁA”Ū‚į‚Í‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚É”ą‹ā‚đ‰Č‚ˇB‚Æ‚Ü‚ ‚˛‚į‚ņA‚ą‚ę‚ĒŒl”Č‹æ‚đ‚ß‚Ž‚鑈‚ĸ‚žB

               Borey kaŋ ka go ra mo i na hawizo din daŋ, ni wo ma koy har i se. To, guna pala wo, borey go ga yenga boŋ kul ne. Oho. Hal yenga ka ka huro calla, kala a to wo tamo din ga borey na gobu sambu cer se. Borey na ba adda sambu cer se. Ga yenga din ka, a bu. Senno kul koy Komandaŋ ka, amiiru Deesa ka.

               If you came [from another village] and put a cow into our farmland, you need to go talk to the delegates. Look, this is what disputes over farmland are all about. Hmm. Once a dispute breaks out, people take a stick in their hands, or sometimes a machete. A dispute breaks out, and people die. The story gets out, the commander comes, and the chief of Dessa comes.

               k‚æ‚ģ‚Š‚įl‚â‚Á‚Ä—ˆ‚ăEƒV‚đŒl”Č‹æ‚É‚ĸ‚ę‚Ŋ‚įA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Í”Ū‚į‚Ė‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚ɘb‚ɍs‚­B‚ŗ‚āA‚˛‚į‚ņA‚ą‚ę‚į‚ĒŒl”Č‹æ‚đ‚ß‚Ž‚él‚Ņ‚Æ‚Ė‘ˆ‚ĸ‚Ė‚ˇ‚ׂĂžB‚¤‚ŪB‚Đ‚Æ‚Ŋ‚Ņ‘ˆ‚ĸ‚Ē‚Í‚ļ‚Ü‚é‚ƁAl‚Ņ‚Æ‚Í‚¨‚Ŋ‚Ē‚ĸ–_‚đ‚Æ‚éB‚΂ ‚ĸ‚É‚æ‚Á‚Ä‚ÍŽR“‚đ‚Æ‚éB‘ˆ‚ĸ‚Ē‚¨‚ą‚čAŽ€l‚Ēo‚éB˜b‚Ė‚ˇ‚ׂĂĒ“`‚í‚čAŽi—ߊ¯‚Ē—ˆ‚āAƒf[ƒT‚ĖŽņ’ˇ‚Ē—ˆ‚éB

\\        A, amiiru Deesa mo ka.

               ƒf[ƒT‚ĖŽņ’ˇ‚ā—ˆ‚é‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

               The chief of Dessa comes, too?

A)           A ka. Soojey ka, zandarmey ka. Han din ir wey i di zaati. I kayoŋo bine kul ir wone bonkoyno wo ga ka ne i se, a ne boro hinka bonkoyno wo beero, a ne ifa ay, ifo go no kaŋ se i ga ne J.F. a ne senno wo, heri kul kaŋ no, ir borey wey no, zama ay do wono i ga ka ka bato te, ciini kul ne in d'ey ga hanna kal ciino ma bi, ir ma sey.

               Yes, he did. Soldiers came, and the military police came. On that day, they actually captured me. When they came, our chief [the chief of Gaarokoyre] said to them, he said that the two brothers of the chief, meaning me and J.F. . . . he said we were to blame for this story [= the dispute]. And thatfs because people gathered every night at my house. We spent every night together well into the night before they went home.

               —ˆ‚Ŋ‚Æ‚āB•ēŽm‚Ē—ˆ‚āAŒ›•ē‚Ē—ˆ‚éB‚ ‚Ė“úA‚ļ‚Á‚ŗ‚ĸ‚É”Ū‚į‚Í‚ą‚Ė‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚đ•ß‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚žB”Ū‚į‚Ē—ˆ‚é‚ƁA‚ą‚Ė‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ĖŽņ’ˇkƒK[ƒƒRƒCƒŒ‘ē’ˇl‚Ē”Ū‚į‚ÉŒž‚Á‚ŊB”Ū‚ĒŒž‚¤‚ɂ́A‚ą‚ĖŽņ’ˇ‚Ė2l‚ĖŒZA‚‚܂č‚Đ‚Æ‚č‚Í‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚ŁA‚ā‚¤‚Đ‚Æ‚č‚ÍJ.F.[17]‚ž‚ĒA”Ū‚ĒŒž‚¤‚ɂ́A‚ą‚Ė˜bk‚ā‚ߎ–l‚ĖŒ´ˆö‚Í‚ˇ‚ׂāA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚É‚ ‚éB‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚Ė‚ā–ˆ”Ķl‚Ņ‚Æ‚ĒW‚Ü‚č‚đ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚Í‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ė‰Æ‚ž‚Š‚į‚žB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í–ˆ”Ķ[–é‚Ü‚Å‚ˇ‚˛‚ĩA‚ģ‚ę‚Š‚į‰đŽU‚ĩ‚ŊB

\\        Wiiza war te ya-wo cine no?

               Thatfs what you really did?

               ‚ļ‚Á‚ŗ‚ĸ‚ģ‚¤‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           Oho. Ir ga hin ka ka almaari jingar hawrey waate, ir ga ka ka sintin senno kal a ma koy to guuru hinza wal itaaci. Ir ma koy kani. Ga mo koy daŋ kaŋ ti ay wo, ay ka go kul te k ay naŋ te. Zama ay do no jama kul ga ka. Ne-wo borey ga hanna. Ga se bine kaŋ i go salaŋ, a ne i ma ay di. Ay ti miimanda fa, zama ay do no borey ga ka.

               Right. We got together at the time of a night prayer and a meal and talked until three or four in the morning. Then we went to bed. Thatfs why I was chosen by God and I took charge of everything. Everyone came to my place. People spent their night here. So [on the day of the trial], they mentioned it, and he [the chief of Gaarokoyre] said to capture me. Because people came to my place, I must be one of the masterminds.

               ‚¤‚ŪB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í–é‚Ė—į”q‚ƐHŽ–‚ĖŽžŠÔ‚É—ˆ‚Ęb‚đ‚Í‚ļ‚߁A3Žž‚Š4Žž‚܂Řb‚đ‚ĩ‚ŊB‚ģ‚ę‚Š‚į‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚͐Q‚ŊB‚ģ‚Ė‚Ŋ‚ß‚ą‚Ė‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ē_‚É’u‚Š‚ęA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ē‚ˇ‚ׂĂđ‚Č‚ĩ‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ė‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚Ɉę’c‚Ē—ˆ‚Ä‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚Š‚į‚žB‚ą‚ą‚Ől‚Ņ‚Æ‚Í–é‚đ‰ß‚˛‚ĩ‚ŊB‚ž‚Š‚įkŲ”ģ‚Ė“úAl”Ū‚į‚͘b‚ĩ‚āA”ŪkƒK[ƒƒRƒCƒŒ‘ē’ˇl‚́A‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚đ•ß‚Ü‚Ļ‚ë‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ė‰Æ‚ɐl‚Ņ‚Æ‚Ē—ˆ‚Ä‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚ž‚Š‚įA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚ĒŽņ–dŽŌ‚Ė‚Đ‚Æ‚č‚žB

\\        Ya-din ga komandaŋ no ka ne?

               So you mean the commander came here?

               ‚‚܂čAŽi—ߊ¯‚Ē‚ą‚ą‚É—ˆ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           Komandaŋ ka. Jomona hendi i ka kubey mey. Huwo do hendi, ni di, hu kaara. No-din ir koy, komandow kul, da, da amiiru Deesa, da, Saayi wone hayo fo kaŋ ga te ikul jine huno, a jyante beeri, ga no mo urugga kul dabari za Saayi kal ne, ga mo ka. To, i ka kaŋ senno kul ra ka deede. To, senno din deedeyoŋo ra ay wo tun, ay go ga salaŋ. Ga ti a na tiira guna, a ne wal ay ti boro filaana. Ay ne a se ay no. A ne sooja se, a ma ay di.

The commander came here. We arranged to meet at Djomona over there. You can see the house over there, right? That white house. We went over there, and the commander, the chief of Dessa, and someone from Saay with the highest status came. This was a very big guy, and he was in charge of all the irrigated farmland from Saay all the way to our village. Now, they came, and we all talked. Now, during the conversation, I also stood up and spoke. Then he looked at the paper and asked me if I was the person. I said that would be me. He said to a soldier, eCapture him.f

               Ži—ߊ¯‚Ē—ˆ‚ŊB‚ ‚ģ‚ąƒWƒ‡ƒ‚ƒi‚Å‘Ō‚ŋ‚ ‚í‚š‚đ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ņ‚ļ‚á‚Č‚ĸ‚ŠB‚ ‚ŋ‚į‚É‚ ‚é‰ÆAŒŠ‚Ļ‚é‚ž‚낤A‚ ‚Ė”’‚ĸ‰Æ‚žB‚ ‚ģ‚ą‚É‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ēs‚ĢAŽi—ߊ¯‚ƁAƒf[ƒT‚ĖŽņ’ˇA‚ģ‚ę‚ƃT[ƒC‚Š‚į—ˆ‚Ŋ‚ā‚Á‚Æ‚āˆĖ‚ĸlA‚ˇ‚˛‚­‘å•ŋ‚Ȑl•¨‚ž‚Á‚Ŋ‚ņ‚ž‚ĒAƒT[ƒC‚Š‚į‚ą‚ą‚Ü‚Å‚Ė‚ˇ‚ׂĂĖAHA‚đŠÄ“‚ˇ‚él‚ā—ˆ‚ŊB‚ŗ‚āA”Ū‚į‚Ē—ˆ‚āA‚Ũ‚Č˜b‚đ‚ĩ‚ŊB‚ŗ‚āA˜b‚ĒŒę‚į‚ę‚é‚Č‚Š‚ŁA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚ā—§‚ŋ‚ ‚Ē‚čA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚ā˜b‚đ‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĸ‚ŊB‚ˇ‚é‚Æ”Ū‚ÍŽ†‚đŒŠ‚ÄA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ē‚ ‚Ėl•¨‚Š‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚́A‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚ž‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB”Ū‚Í•ēŽm‚ɁA•ß‚Ü‚Ļ‚ë‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB

               *Sooja ka, a ne ay se ka ne-here wo. Ay ka ka koy guna i go ma key ya da cine. A na... Ayyo! A ne Isubu din mo salaŋ. A ne i ma Isubu din di. I ne Isubu din di, ga mo i kat'a i do. Dan ka fo mo salaŋ kaŋ se i ga ne J.F.. Adam din da wono wone ɲa fa ize no. Ga mo a ne i ma di. Ir boro hinza wo no a koy Tilabeeri, a ne i si bey.

               *[laughs] A Soldier came and told me to come. When I did, they were standing like this. He . . . right. He also told Isbou to talk. He told them to capture Isbou as well. They said, eCapture Isbou,f and took him to them. And they told one more person, J.F., to talk as well. One of the children of Adamfs mother. They told them to capture him, too. When three of us [asked them if we] were going to Tilabeeri, he said he didnft know.

               *kÎ‚ĸ‚Č‚Ē‚įl•ēŽm‚Ē—ˆ‚āA‚ą‚Á‚ŋ‚É—ˆ‚ĸ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ē—ˆ‚Ä‚Ũ‚é‚ƁA”Ū‚į‚Í‚ą‚¤‚â‚Á‚Ä—§‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚ŊB”Ū‚́cB‚ģ‚¤‚žB”Ū‚̓CƒXƒu[18]‚É‚ā˜b‚š‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB”Ū‚̓CƒXƒu‚ā•ß‚Ü‚Ļ‚ë‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB”Ū‚į‚̓CƒXƒu‚đ‚‚Š‚Ü‚Ļ‚ë‚ÆŒž‚ĸA”Ū‚į‚Ė‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚ɘA‚ę‚Ä‚ĸ‚Á‚ŊB‚ģ‚ę‚Š‚į‚ā‚¤1lAJ.F.‚É‚ā˜b‚š‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚ģ‚ĖƒAƒ_ƒ€‚Ė•ę‚ĖŽq‚Ė1l‚žB”Ū‚Ė‚ą‚Æ‚ā•ß‚Ü‚Ļ‚ë‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ3l‚̓eƒBƒ‰ƒx[ƒŠ‚ɍs‚­‚Ė‚Šk‚Ŋ‚¸‚Ë‚é‚ƁlA”Ū‚Í’m‚į‚Č‚ĸ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB

               A ne heri kul kaŋ a do, ir wey ir ka go ga te man du ne, i ne ay di, i n ay di, ir ma koy goro hendi. Waat in no i soboey ka ngey senno te, sooja ne kaŋ ir ma ka ka koy to hendi ka goro weyna ra. He! A si hense goy laaro no. áTo, ni di sohoŋ ni na ay di, amma ay si goro weyna ra, ir man zey, ir man boro wi, ir man boro kar, fo se ni ne ir koy ka goro. Wo ti senni yaamo, ka ne za ni gonda hino faabante, ay si koy weyna ra wallaâ. Ir ka ka goro kal de i ka i ne gey senno ban. Waati din no i ne sohoŋ to, ir ma ka ka fatta ka koy. Gey mey sallama. Ayyo. Ya wey te.

               He said that at that point he didnft quite understand any of what we were doing. They said to capture me. They captured me and told me to sit over there. Then as they continued to talk, a soldier told me to go over there and sit under the sun. Hm. He wouldnft take back that horrible order. Now, you see? I was captured, but I didnft go under the sun. I said, eWe did not steal, murder, or punch anyone. Why would you tell me to sit over there? Itfs ridiculous. You are just wielding stupid power. I would not go under the sun.f We sat still until they finished talking. They then told us we could go. They themselves greeted and left, too. Right. Something like that happened.

               ”Ū‚ÍŒž‚Á‚ŊA‚ą‚Ė‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ē‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚ą‚Æ‚ˇ‚ׂāA‚ą‚ą‚Å‚Í‚æ‚­‚í‚Š‚į‚Č‚ĸ‚ƁA”Ū‚į‚Í‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚đ•ß‚į‚Ļ‚ë‚ÆŒž‚ĸA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚đ•ß‚į‚Ļ‚āA‚ģ‚Á‚ŋ‚ōĀ‚Á‚Ä‚ë‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚ģ‚ę‚Š‚į”Ū‚į‚Ē˜b‚đ‚‚¯‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚ƁA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‚ģ‚Á‚ŋ‚ɍs‚Á‚āA‘ž—z‚Ė‰ē‚ɍĀ‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚ë‚Æ•ēŽm‚ĒŒž‚Á‚ŊBƒw‚ĻB”Ū‚Í‚ģ‚Ė‚Đ‚Į‚ĸŽd‘Å‚ŋ‚đ‚ ‚į‚Ŋ‚߂悤‚Æ‚ĩ‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB‚ŗ‚āA‚ĸ‚ĸ‚ˁA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Í•ß‚į‚Ļ‚į‚ę‚Ŋ‚ĒA‘ž—z‚Ė‰ē‚É‚ĸ‚Š‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊBu‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í“‚Ũ‚đ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚킯‚Å‚ā‚Č‚ĸ‚ĩAl‚đŽE‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚킯‚Å‚ā‚Č‚ĸ‚ĩAl‚đ‰Ŗ‚Á‚Ŋ‚킯‚Å‚ā‚Č‚ĸB‚Č‚ē‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Í‚ģ‚ą‚ōĀ‚Á‚Ä‚ë‚Č‚Į‚ÆŒž‚¤‚Ė‚žB‚Č‚ņ‚Æ”nŽ­‚°‚Ŋ˜b‚žB‚Č‚ņ‚Ƃ‚܂į‚Č‚ĸŒ —Í‚đ‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Í‚Ķ‚č‚Š‚´‚ˇ‚Ė‚žA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚͐â‘Αž—z‚Ė‰ē‚ɍs‚Š‚Č‚ĸvB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í”Ū‚į‚Ė˜b‚ĒI‚í‚é‚܂ōĀ‚č‚‚Â¯‚ŊB‚ˇ‚é‚Æ”Ū‚į‚́A‚ā‚¤‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚͍s‚¯‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB”Ū‚įŽŠg‚āˆĨŽA‚ĩ‚Ä‹Ž‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚Á‚ŊB‚ģ‚¤‚žB‚ģ‚¤‚ĸ‚¤‚ą‚Æ‚Ē‚ ‚Á‚ŊB

               Oho. Ga ti senno de ir ka ka cer di, waato wo din sey, Isubu yoŋ here borey i ne kaŋ ga kabu Teera, i ne ir ma ngey gana, ir ma hun Tilabeeri., Gaarokoyre tira ra ka bere Tera tira ra. Ir mey ne i se : áHa'a. Dogo war dogo ra. boro kaŋ ga ba Teera. Amma ir wey ir koyra, ir si a sey ka ne war se ir si hun koyra ra abadaâ! Ir wey koyra da de boro folloŋ ka cindi. Ir windo hinne ka cindi ir go gora do. Da Irkoy ba mo ir ga du a se caley.

               Hmm. Then we gathered to discuss this issue and went home. Then the people on Isboufs side said they would resister their residency in Tera. They said, eLetfs leave Tilabeeri. Letfs move out of Gaarokoyrefs paper and join Terafs paper.f We said to them, eNo. That place is for you. Itfs for those who like Tera. But we, we are not going to let our village disintegrate. Let me tell you guys. We will never leave this village, our village.f Only a few stayed. Only our family remained and still live there. If it had pleased God, we could have found more friends.

               ‚¤‚ŪB‚ģ‚¤‚ĩ‚Ä‚ą‚Ė˜b‚đ‚ß‚Ž‚č‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚͏W‚Ü‚čA‰đŽU‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚ž‚ĒA‚ˇ‚é‚ƃCƒXƒu‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘¤‚ĖlŠÔ‚́Aƒe[ƒ‰‚Ő”‚Ļ‚é‚ÆŒž‚ĸ‚ž‚ĩ‚ŊBƒeƒBƒ‰ƒx[ƒŠ‚Š‚į—Ŗ‚ę‚悤AƒK[ƒƒRƒCƒŒ‚ĖŽ†‚Š‚įƒe[ƒ‰‚ĖŽ†‚Ɉڂ낤‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚ą‚Ė‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚́A”Ū‚į‚ÉŒž‚Á‚ŊBu‚ĸ‚ĸ‚âB‚ģ‚ą‚Í‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ĖęŠAƒe[ƒ‰‚đD‚Ģ‚ČŽŌ‚ĖęŠ‚žB‚ĩ‚Š‚ĩ‚ą‚Ė‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚́A‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘ē‚đ•Ē—ô‚ŗ‚š‚Č‚ĸB‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ÉŒž‚Á‚Ä‚â‚낤A‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ÍŒˆ‚ĩ‚Ä‚ą‚Ė‘ē‚đ—Ŗ‚ę‚Č‚ĸB‚ą‚Ė‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘ē‚žvB‚Ė‚ą‚Á‚ŊŽŌ‚͂킸‚Š‚ž‚Á‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‰Ž•~‚ž‚¯‚Ē‚Ė‚ą‚Á‚āAZ‚ņ‚Å‚ĸ‚éB_‚Ē‚¨–]‚Ũ‚Č‚įA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í’‡ŠÔ‚đ‚Ļ‚é‚ą‚Æ‚ā‚Å‚Ģ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚ž‚낤‚ĒB

kŒã—Ēl[Later part omitted]

 

2.      ƒAƒuƒhƒDƒ‰ƒC‚ĖŒę‚č(2007”N3ŒŽ9“ú)@Abudullahifs Remarks (March 9, 2007)

2-1. A–¯’nŠú‚ĖŽņ’ˇˆĘ‘nŨ杁@Story of the creation of the chief during the colonial era

k‘O—Ēl[Earlier part omitted]

GM)[19]    I baabey, to, gey no ti..., ko, Banɲey windi wo, fo ti war kaago maayo? Ni mo ni wa har kaaga se. Sohoŋ ay ga war kaaga maayo hã.

The fathers, right, they . . . this house for slaves, let me see, what was the name of your ancestor? You tell him about your ancestor, too. This time, I will ask you the name of your ancestor.

              ‚ģ‚Ė•ƒe‚Ŋ‚ŋA‚ģ‚¤A”Ū‚į‚ĒcA‚ą‚Ė“z—ę‚Ė‰Ž•~A‚Ļ‚Ļ‚ƁA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘cæ‚Ė–ŧ‘O‚Í‚Č‚ņ‚ÄŒž‚Á‚Ŋ‚Á‚¯B‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚ā‘cæ‚ɂ‚ĸ‚Ęb‚Č‚ŗ‚ĸBĄ“x‚́A‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ē‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‘cæ‚Ė–ŧ‘O‚𕡂­‚ą‚Æ‚É‚ĩ‚悤B

A)[20]       Ni bey, ir sinda kaaga, boro kaago hinne war se.

              I think you know. We donft have an ancestor except for your ancestor that we call eour ancestor.f

              ‚˛‘ļ‚ļ‚Å‚ˇ‚æ‚ˁA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚É‚Í‘cæ‚Ē‚ĸ‚Ü‚š‚ņ‚æA‚ ‚Č‚Ŋ‚Ē‚Ŋ‚ɁAg“ā‚Æ‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ė‘cæ‚Ē‚ĸ‚é‚ž‚¯‚Å‚ˇ‚æB

GM)       Ha?

              Oh.

              ‚Í‚ B

A)          *Manti ni ne ay sinda baaba here kaaga, wa, ɲa kaabe hinne a go ay se.

              [laughs] You are the one who told me I donft have a paternal ancestor and I only have a maternal ancestor.

              *kÎ‚ĸ‚Č‚Ē‚įl‚ ‚Č‚Ŋ‚Ē‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚É•ƒ•û‚Ė‘cæ‚Ē‚ĸ‚Č‚ĸA•ę•û‚Ė‘cæ‚ĩ‚Š‚ĸ‚Č‚ĸ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚Ŋ‚ņ‚ļ‚á‚Č‚ĸ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

GM)       Ɲa kaaga? A'a, ay wo ni ɲa kaagey ay no g i bey, bina ni har. To, ni mo...

              A maternal ancestor, huh? Well, I do know your maternal ancestor, and Ifve already talked about it. So you go ahead . . .

              •ę•û‚Ė‘cæ‚Š‚ĸB‚ĸ‚âA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ė•ę•û‚Ė‘cæ‚Č‚į‚ą‚Ė‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ē’m‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚ĩA‚ā‚¤˜b‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚Å‚ĩ‚åB‚ģ‚¤A‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚ācB

A)          To*. MaadullaB

              See* [laughs]? I told you.

              ‚Ų‚į*kÎ‚¤lB‚ģ‚¤‚Å‚ĩ‚傤B

GM)      Ni mo, ni baaba wone naŋ g i har*. Ay ka hino, a si har.

              You tell him about your father, too* [laughs]. Itfs time for me to shut up.

              ‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚āA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ė•ƒ‚ɂ‚ĸ‚Ęb‚ĩ‚Č‚ŗ‚ĸ*kÎ‚¤lBĄ“x‚Í‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ē˜b‚ŗ‚Č‚ĸ”Ô‚žB

A)          Ay ne, ay ne har a se, a ma. Ay ne a se, ay wo kaaga, ay wo ka.., ay baaba kaago wo, a man hun kal Bukkina.

I, I told him. He heard me. I told him that my ancestor, my paternal ancestor was from Burkina Faso.

              ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚́A‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Í”Ū‚ɘb‚ĩ‚Ü‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚æA”Ū‚ā•ˇ‚Ģ‚Ü‚ĩ‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Í”Ū‚ɁA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ė‘cæA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ė•ƒ•û‚Ė‘cæ‚Ēƒuƒ‹ƒLƒiƒtƒ@ƒ\og‚ž‚Ƙb‚ĩ‚Ü‚ĩ‚ŊB

GM)      Burkina?

              Burkina Faso.

              ƒuƒ‹ƒLƒiƒtƒ@ƒ\‚Š‚ĸB

A)          Burkina boro no. Faccama Ɲamarkandi wo, Ɲamarkandi wo mo, Burkina boro me. Burkina boro no, manti ne-wo boro no.

              Yes, she was a Burkina Fasonian. Fathama Nyamarkandi. Nyamarkandi is a Burkina Fasonian name. A Burkina Fasonian. She wasnft from here.

              ƒuƒ‹ƒLƒiƒtƒ@ƒ\l‚Å‚ˇBƒtƒ@ƒbƒ`ƒƒ[ƒ}Eƒjƒƒƒ}ƒ‹ƒJƒ“ƒfƒBA‚ą‚Ėƒjƒƒƒ}ƒ‹ƒJƒ“ƒfƒB‚́Aƒuƒ‹ƒLƒiƒtƒ@ƒ\l‚Å‚ĩ‚傤Bƒuƒ‹ƒLƒiƒtƒ@ƒ\l‚Å‚ˇ‚æA‚ą‚ą‚ĖlŠÔ‚ļ‚á‚ ‚č‚Ü‚š‚ņB

\\       Ya-din no ni ne ay se.

              Thatfs what you told me.

              ‚ģ‚¤‚ĸ‚Á‚Ä‚Ü‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚æ‚ˁB

GM)      Hu'un. Ay ma. Burkina boro no. Fo ka, fo ka kat'a ne.

              Hmm. All right. She was a Burkina Fasonian. Why, why was she brought here?

              ‚Ķ‚Ū‚Ķ‚ŪB‚í‚Š‚Á‚Ŋ‚æBƒuƒ‹ƒLƒiƒtƒ@ƒ\l‚žB‚Č‚ēA‚Č‚ē‚ą‚ą‚ɘA‚ę‚Ä‚ą‚į‚ę‚Ŋ‚ĖB

A)           Burkina? Burkina borey ni bey, za fes, Burkina borey wey, ni bey Gurmance ka goro Fuliyande wo ra fes bo. Ha?

              Burkina Faso. Burkina Fasonians were . . . Listen. The very Gourmantche, who were Burkina Fasonians, used to live in Fuliyande. You know?

              ƒuƒ‹ƒLƒiƒtƒ@ƒ\Bƒuƒ‹ƒLƒiƒtƒ@ƒ\l‚́A‚ĸ‚ĸ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠAƒuƒ‹ƒLƒiƒtƒ@ƒ\l‚Å‚ ‚éƒOƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“ƒ`ƒF‚ą‚ģ‚ĒƒtƒŠƒAƒ“ƒf‚ɏZ‚ņ‚Å‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚ņ‚žB‚Ë‚ĻB

GM)       Huhun.

              I see.

              ‚Ķ‚Ū‚Ķ‚ŪB

A)           Fuliyande wo Gurmance ka goro a ra fes! Hu? Ba sohoŋ i huwey dogey go no.

              Gourmantche used to live here in Fuliyande, uh? There are still remains of their houses.

              ‚ą‚ąƒtƒŠƒAƒ“ƒf‚ɂ̓Oƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“ƒ`ƒF‚ĒZ‚ņ‚Å‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇB‚ĻBĄ‚Å‚ŗ‚Ļ‚ģ‚Ė‰Æ‰ŽÕ‚Ē‚Ė‚ą‚Á‚Ä‚Ü‚ˇB

\\       Un. Ir ga hin ka diy'a.

              Right. There are.

              ‚¤‚ņB‚ĸ‚Ü‚Å‚ā‚ ‚č‚Ü‚ˇ‚ˁB

A)           Ni ga hangan? Kaŋ Gurmance goro Fuliyande ra, Gurmancey banda, Gurmancey, boro man Gurmancey dirandi Fuliyande ra kala..., Surgey. Gey ka Gurmance wi ka Fuliyande ra. Surgey banda. Boro man Surgey mey dirandi kal annasaarey ka duk hut ka Surgey wey ka Fuliyande ra. Surgey k i dirandi. Ni go ma hangan?

              Are you listening? Gourmantche used to live in Fuliyande. After Gourmantche, itfs Tuareg that threw Gourmantche out of Fuliyande. They massacred Gourmantche in Fuliyande. After Tuareg, itfs whites that forced Tuareg out. They got mad and got rid of Tuareg from Fuliyande. They forced Tuareg out. Are you listening?

              •ˇ‚ĸ‚Ä‚Ü‚ˇ‚ŠB‚Š‚‚Ă̓Oƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“ƒ`ƒF‚ĒƒtƒŠƒAƒ“ƒf‚ɏZ‚ņ‚Å‚ĸ‚ŊBƒOƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“ƒ`ƒF‚ĖŒã‚ɁAƒOƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“ƒ`ƒF‚đAƒtƒŠƒAƒ“ƒf‚Š‚įƒOƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“ƒ`ƒF‚đ’Įo‚ĩ‚ŊŽŌ‚ą‚ģ‚ĒAƒgƒDƒAƒŒƒO‚Å‚ˇB‚ ‚ĸ‚‚į‚ĒƒOƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“ƒ`ƒF‚đƒtƒŠƒAƒ“ƒf‚ÅŽEC‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇBƒgƒDƒAƒŒƒO‚ĖŒã‚ɃgƒDƒAƒŒƒOŽŠ‘Ė‚đ’Įo‚ĩ‚ŊŽŌ‚ą‚ģ‚Ē”’l‚Å‚ˇB“{‚Á‚ăgƒDƒAƒŒƒO‚đƒtƒŠƒAƒ“ƒf‚Š‚įœ‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚Å‚ˇB”Ū‚į‚ĒƒgƒDƒAƒŒƒO‚đ’Įo‚ĩ‚ŊB•ˇ‚ĸ‚Ä‚Ü‚ˇ‚ŠB

GM)       Huhun.

              I see.

              ‚Ķ‚Ū‚Ķ‚ŪB

A)           To, Surgey kaŋ na annasaarey n i ka Fuliyande ra, to, Gorɲo-haamey wey kaŋ ni ga di Isa-Beegun yoŋ din, gey ga ka ka lamba Surgey ga. Surgey ga i lamba jina, gey wey ka du Fuliyande fuula cuk cuk kul kaŋ ga di, Surgey ga, i duw'a.

              Now, when whites kicked Tuareg out of Fuliyande, thatfs when Gornyo haamey, Isa Begum, whom you know, and his followers came, and took over Tuareg. They first took over Tuareg, and they successfully obtained the status of great chief in Fuliyande, which belonged to Tuareg.

              ‚ŗ‚āA”’l‚ĒƒtƒŠƒAƒ“ƒf‚Š‚įƒgƒDƒAƒŒƒO‚đ’Įo‚ˇ‚ƁA‚ģ‚ą‚ŃSƒ‹ƒjƒ‡Eƒn[ƒƒCA‚ ‚Č‚Ŋ‚ā‚˛‘ļ‚ļ‚ĖƒCƒTEƒx[ƒOƒ“‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ē‚â‚Á‚Ä—ˆ‚āAƒgƒDƒAƒŒƒO‚ĖŒãŠ˜‚É‚ˇ‚í‚Á‚ŊB”Ū‚į‚Í‚Ü‚¸ƒgƒDƒAƒŒƒO‚ĖŒãŠ˜‚ɍĀ‚čA‚ģ‚Ė”Ū‚į‚ĒAƒgƒDƒAƒŒƒO‚Ēg‚ɂ‚¯‚Ä‚ĸ‚ŊƒsƒJƒsƒJ‚ĖƒtƒŠƒAƒ“ƒf‚Ė–XŽq‚đ‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇB

GM)       Beegun si fuula ra.

              Begum didnft become the chief.

              ƒx[ƒOƒ“‚ÍŽņ’ˇˆĘ‚ɂ‚Š‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB

A)          Ha'a. Manti fuula yoŋo, manti fuula bumbo goro yoŋo.

              Ifm not talking about the chief position. Ifm not talking about the creation of the chief position.

              ‚ĸ‚ĸ‚âBŽņ’ˇˆĘ‚ĖŒ‚ļ‚á‚ ‚č‚Ü‚š‚ņAŽņ’ˇˆĘŨ’u‚ĖŒ‚ļ‚á‚ ‚č‚Ü‚š‚ņB

GM)       Ayyo.

              Oh, all right.

              ‚ ‚ A‚ģ‚¤B

A)           I fuula cuk cuk kul ni go ma har ni se din.                           

              The status of great chief. Were you listening to me?

              ƒsƒJƒsƒJ‚ĖŽņ’ˇˆĘA•ˇ‚ĸ‚Ä‚Ü‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŠAĄ‚Ė˜b‚đB

GM)       Ayyo.

               I see.

              ‚Č‚é‚Ų‚ĮB

A)           Surgey ga i duw'a.

              They got it from Tuareg.

              ƒgƒDƒAƒŒƒO‚Š‚į‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚Å‚ˇB

GM)      Ay wo ke, wo kaŋ ay ma ke, kaŋ abba deede ay se. A ne ay se, te, a ne Beegun man furo. Fuula a man sintin de kala Isa Beegun ga.

              I [talked about] what my father had told me. He [my father] said that Begum, the status of chief started with Isa Begum.

              ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚͂ˁA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ė•ƒ‚ŗ‚ņ‚Ē‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚ɘb‚ĩ‚Ä‚­‚ę‚Ŋ‚ą‚Ɓk‚đ˜b‚ĩ‚ŊlB”Ūk•ƒ‚ŗ‚ņl‚́Aƒx[ƒOƒ“‚́AŽņ’ˇˆĘ‚́AƒCƒTEƒx[ƒOƒ“‚Š‚į‚Í‚ļ‚Ü‚Á‚Ŋ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚ŊB

A)           Ya-din no. Ni bey, ne-wo Fuliyande wo Gurmance ka diy'a wo, kul labo wo, manti Fuliyande hinne, gungey kul Gurmance ka jin ir labo.

              Thatfs right. You see? Itfs Gourmantche that obtained this Fuliyande. Not just Fuliyande. This entire place. On all of our islands, Gourmantche were there first.

              ‚ģ‚¤‚Å‚ĩ‚傤B‚ĸ‚ĸ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠA‚ą‚ąƒtƒŠƒAƒ“ƒf‚́AƒOƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“ƒ`ƒF‚Ē‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚ā‚Ė‚ž‚Á‚Ŋ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇA‚ą‚Ė’n‚ˇ‚ׂĂłˇAƒtƒŠƒAƒ“ƒf‚ž‚¯‚Å‚Í‚ ‚č‚Ü‚š‚ņA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė’n‚É‚ ‚邡‚ׂĂĖ“‡X‚ɃOƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“ƒ`ƒF‚Ēæ‚É‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚Å‚ˇB

\\       War senno wo ke, i ga tuk car ga ka boori. Zama dottiijey boobo ka ne, za doŋ waate, koytarey bumbo si no.

              What you guys are saying actually make sense a lot because many elders were saying there used to be no chief position.

              ‚ ‚Č‚Ŋ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė˜b‚́A‚Æ‚Ä‚ā‚æ‚­‚Š‚Ũ‚ ‚Á‚Ä‚Ü‚ˇ‚æB‚ž‚Á‚āA‚¨‚¨‚­‚Ė’ˇ˜V‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ĒĖ‚ÍŽņ’ˇˆĘŽŠ‘Ė‚Ē‚Č‚Š‚Á‚Ŋ‚Æ‚ĸ‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚Š‚įB

A)           A si no.

              No, there wasnft.

              ‚Č‚Š‚Á‚Ŋ‚æB

\\       Ya-din ga, Beegun waate koytarey bumbo si no.

              So there was no chief position itself in Begumfs time.

              ‚ž‚Š‚įAƒx[ƒOƒ“‚ĖŽž‘ã‚É‚ÍŽņ’ˇˆĘŽŠ‘Ė‚Ē‚Č‚Š‚Á‚Ŋ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇB

GM)       Beegun sinda koytarey..

              Begum didnft receive the status of chief.

              ƒx[ƒOƒ“‚́AŽņ’ˇˆĘ‚đ‚ā‚Ŋ‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB

\\       Boro, boro kaŋ ga laabo mey, ikkul Surgey de no.

              Those who had control over land were all Tuareg.

              “y’n‚đŽx”z‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĸ‚ŊŽŌ‚Ƃ́A‚ˇ‚ׂăgƒDƒAƒŒƒO‚Å‚ĩ‚ŊB

A)           Koytara wo man sintin de kal Surgey ga. Labo bumbo kul taalikow, Gurmance ka jin ne. Gurmancey, ba kaŋ ni ga dira, i goro dogey, naŋ ga gey bumbo, barey wey ra, i huwo dogey, boro naŋ ga diyey. To, Gurmancey din, manti kal Gurmancey, annasaarey ka Gurmancey wi dirandi saada saan. Kaŋ Gurmancey dira, Gurmancey dira nongo ra, waati din, Surgey. Gey ka ka goro. To, Surgey. Gen da, ni di, Kurtey wo, gan da Fulaŋ kul ifo. Kurtey wo, ga ka lamba Surgey ga. Surgey g i du gey nongo wo kul. Kurtey wey gey ka lamba Surgey ga. Surgey ga, Kurtey wey dogey nongo kul, Kurtey kul kaŋ ga du nango wo, Surgey ga duw'a. Waat in fuula wo senni man ka, waat in no fuula wo ka, kokor ka huro. Un. Waat in no fuula wo kokor ka huro, ni ya hantum yo, ka ka huro.

              The chief system began during the era of Tuareg, who was the host of all the disasters around this region. It was the Gourmantche that were here first. If you walk around, you will be able to see the remains of their houses on the islands. Now, Gourmantche, whites came, massacred them, and kicked them all out. Gourmantche were gone. After Gourmantche were gone, then Tuareg, they started living here. Now, Tuareg, they and Kurty, and Furbe are all the same. Kurty took over Tuareg. Tuareg had obtained all of this place. Then Kurty took over Tuareg. After Tuareg, Kurty [obtained] this place, which Tuareg had obtained. In those days, there was no chief position. It came later. Right. Then as you wrote, the chief position was introduced.

              Žņ’ˇ§‚́A‚ą‚Ė’nˆę‘Ņ‚ĖĐ‚ĸ‚ĖŽåƒgƒDƒAƒŒƒO‚ĖŽž‘ã‚Š‚į‚Í‚ļ‚Ü‚Á‚ŊBæ‚É‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚̓Oƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“ƒ`ƒF‚žB‚ā‚ĩ‚ ‚Č‚Ŋ‚Ēo•ā‚Ģ‚ŗ‚Ļ‚ˇ‚ę‚΁A‚ą‚Ė“‡X‚ɍĄ‚ā‚Ė‚ą‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚éƒOƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“ƒ`ƒF‚Ė‰Æ‰ŽÕ‚đŒŠ‚é‚ą‚Æ‚Ē‚Å‚Ģ‚Ü‚ˇB‚ŗ‚āA‚ą‚ĖƒOƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“ƒ`ƒF‚́A”’l‚Ē—ˆ‚āAƒOƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“ƒ`ƒF‚đŽEC‚ĩA‚ˇ‚ׂĒĮo‚ĩ‚ŊBƒOƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“ƒ`ƒF‚Ē‹Ž‚Á‚āA‚ą‚ą‚Š‚įƒOƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“ƒ`ƒF‚Ē‹Ž‚Á‚Ä‚Š‚įA‚ģ‚Ė‚Æ‚ĢƒgƒDƒAƒŒƒOB‚ ‚ĸ‚‚į‚ĒZ‚Ū‚悤‚É‚Č‚Á‚Ŋ‚Ė‚Å‚ˇB‚ŗ‚ăgƒDƒAƒŒƒOA‚ ‚ĸ‚‚į‚ƃNƒ‹ƒeƒCA‚ģ‚ę‚Ƀtƒ‹ƒx‚Í‚Ũ‚Č‚Đ‚Æ‚Â‚Å‚ˇBƒNƒ‹ƒeƒC‚̓gƒDƒAƒŒƒO‚ĖŒãŠ˜‚ɍĀ‚č‚Ü‚ĩ‚ŊBƒgƒDƒAƒŒƒO‚Í‚ą‚ĖęŠ‚ˇ‚ׂĂđŠl“ž‚ĩ‚ŊB‚ģ‚ĩ‚ăNƒ‹ƒeƒC‚ĒƒgƒDƒAƒŒƒO‚ĖŒãŠ˜‚ɍĀ‚Á‚ŊBƒgƒDƒAƒŒƒO‚ĖŒãŠ˜‚ɁAƒNƒ‹ƒeƒC‚Ē‚ą‚ą‚đAƒgƒDƒAƒŒƒO‚ĒŠl“ž‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ą‚ą‚đk‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇlB“–ŽžŽņ’ˇˆĘ‚Ė˜b‚Í‚Ü‚ž—ˆ‚Ä‚¨‚į‚¸AŽņ’ˇˆĘ‚Í‚ģ‚ĖŒã‚â‚Á‚Ä—ˆ‚ŊB‚¤‚ņB‚ģ‚ę‚Š‚įŒN‚ā‘‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚悤‚ÉŽņ’ˇˆĘ‚Ē“ą“ü‚ŗ‚ę‚ŊB

\\       Ne da Fuliyande ra mo...

              Here in Fuliyande, too . . .

              ‚ą‚ąƒtƒŠƒAƒ“ƒf‚Å‚ācB

A)           To, fuula wo, ma kaŋ ga a te, ya ka sambu din, wo da ne. Fuula beero si kal Gaarokoyre wo da.

              Thus the position of chief was created here and then taken away. The status of paramount chief existed here in Gaarokoyre.

              ‚ŗ‚āA‚ą‚¤‚ĩ‚ÄŽņ’ˇˆĘ‚́A‚ą‚ą‚ł‚­‚į‚ęA‚Æ‚č‚Č‚¨‚ŗ‚ę‚ŊB‘åŽņ’ˇˆĘ‚́A‚ą‚ąƒK[ƒƒRƒCƒŒ‚É‚ ‚Á‚ŊB

GM)       Huun.

              Huh.

              ‚Ķ‚¤‚ņB

A)           Ya-din no. Fuula beero Gaarokoyre wono, kantoŋtara Gaarokoyra wo da wo. Anzura se a na no.

              Itfs true. The paramount chief belonged to Gaarokoyre. The canton chief was here in Gaarokoyre. He gave the status to son-in-law.

              ‚ģ‚¤‚Č‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚æB‘åŽņ’ˇˆĘ‚̓K[ƒƒRƒCƒŒ‚Ė‚ā‚ĖAƒJƒ“ƒgƒ“’ˇ‚Ƃ́A‚Ü‚ŗ‚É‚ą‚ąƒK[ƒƒRƒCƒŒ‚É‚ ‚Á‚ŊB‚ģ‚ę‚đ”Ū‚Í–ē–š‚É—^‚Ļ‚ŊB

GM)       Kadi. Kadi amiiru kaŋ na Mooru yoŋ hay.

              Khadi. Khadi Amir, who gave birth to those guys including Moru.

              ƒJƒfƒBBƒ‚[ƒ‹‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚đļ‚ņ‚žƒJƒfƒBEƒAƒ~[ƒ‹B

A)           Wo ti cimi. Ba sohoŋ taarifo ya-din no a ra.

              Youfre right. Thatfs what history tells us.

              ‚ģ‚Ė‚Æ‚¨‚č‚Å‚ˇBĄ‚Å‚ā—đŽj‚É‚Í‚ģ‚¤‚ ‚č‚Ü‚ˇB

GM)      Fuula beero Isa Beegun wone, ga mo ne ga na no nga anzura se.

              The paramount chief status belonged to Isa Begum, and he offered it to his son-in-law.

              ‘åŽņ’ˇˆĘ‚̓CƒTEƒx[ƒOƒ“‚Ė‚ā‚ĖA”Ū‚Í‚ģ‚ę‚đ–ē–š‚É—^‚Ļ‚é‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB

A)           ya-din no ya.

              Thatfs right.

              ‚ģ‚Ė‚Æ‚¨‚č‚Å‚ˇB

GM)       A ma sambu.

               He told him to take it.

              ‚Æ‚č‚Č‚ŗ‚ĸA‚ƁB

A)           A bandey kaŋ ni ga di, gey ti banɲa bi yoŋ wey da.

              His descendant is, you know him, too. That slave bastard.

              ‚ģ‚ĖŽq‘ˇ‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚Ė‚ĒA‚ ‚Č‚Ŋ‚ā’m‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚éA‚ ‚Ė“z—ę–ė˜Y‚Å‚ˇB

GM)       Nhun. Gey de no ya. Ni hã? A ma sambu. Gey de no wey din. Kal de amiiru.

              Right. Those bastards. Understand? Take it. Thatfs why it happened. Until they got the chief status.

              ‚ģ‚¤B‚ ‚ĸ‚‚į‚ž‚ˁB‚í‚Š‚Á‚Ŋ‚Š‚ĸB‚Æ‚č‚Č‚ŗ‚ĸB‚ģ‚ę‚Å‚ ‚ ‚Č‚Á‚ŊBŽņ’ˇ‚É‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚é‚܂ŁB

A)           I ɲa huwo kul de ne Fuliyande.

              His motherfs house was here in Fuliyande.

              ”Ū‚į‚Ė•ę‚Ė‰Æ‚Í‚ą‚ąƒtƒŠƒAƒ“ƒf‚É‚ ‚Á‚ŊB

\\       Banɲa bi yoŋ ti mey?

              Who do you mean by the eslave bastardf?

              “z—ę–ė˜Y‚Á‚Ä’N‚Ė‚ą‚Æ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           Deesa borey no me. Gorɲo-haamey da no.

              The guy from Dessa, of course. Hefs Gornyo haamey.

              ƒf[ƒT‚ĖlŠÔ‚ž‚낤‚ĒBƒSƒ‹ƒjƒ‡Eƒn[ƒƒC‚Č‚Ė‚žB

kŒã—Ēl[Later part omitted]

 

 

3.      ƒAƒŠ‚ĖŒę‚č(2007”N1ŒŽ22“ú)@Alifs Remarks (January 22, 2007)

3-1.  AHA‰Ō“­ŠJŽnŒã‚ĖŒl”Č‹æ‚Ėķ‹ĩ@The situation in the irrigated farmland after it was put in operation 

k˜^‰šŠJŽnl[Recording begins]

\\       Ay wo ke, ay ga ba ay ma bey, hayow, ni senno, paley do, paley do ni senno, za doŋ..., e, manti za doŋ no, amma ni ka har'ey se mate kaŋ cine no ni du, hayo, palaa kaŋ ni go ga goy

              I, uh, your story, the irrigated farmland, the story about the irrigated farmland . . . The other day, um, not too long ago, you, um, you told me how you got the farmland where you are currently working.

              ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Í‚Å‚ˇ‚ˁA‚Ļ‚Ļ‚Æ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Í‚ ‚Č‚Ŋ‚Ė˜bAAHAAAHA‚Ė˜b‚đcA‚ą‚Ė‘OA‚Ļ‚Ļ‚ƁA‚¸‚Á‚ƐĖ‚Å‚Í‚Č‚ĸ‚¯‚ę‚ĮA‚ ‚Č‚Ŋ‚́A‚Ļ‚Ļ‚ƁA‚Į‚¤‚â‚Á‚Ä‚ ‚Č‚Ŋ‚Ē‚ĸ‚ÜŽdŽ–‚đ‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĸ‚éŒl”Č‹æ‚đ‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚Š‚đ˜b‚ĩ‚Ä‚­‚ę‚Ü‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚æ‚ˁB

A)[21]        K ey go ka, ga no ni ga ba ay ma har? Huun. Wo kaŋ ay go wal za i jina, ni bey, ay jin ka go goro ka pala sambu. Ay na a no Suley se,wo kaŋ go Suley se, fonda jinde din no i si a...

              You want me to talk to you about my [farmland]? Ha. The one I currently have. No, the one I originally had. Listen, I have had a farmland since a long time ago. I gave it to Sourey. About that . . .

              ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ē‚ĸ‚ékŒl”Č‹ælA‚ģ‚ę‚ɂ‚ĸ‚Ęb‚ĩ‚Ä‚Ų‚ĩ‚ĸ‚Ė‚ŠB‚Ķ‚¤‚ņBĄ‚Ė‚ā‚ĖA‚ĸ‚âÅ‰‚Ė‚ā‚ĖA‚ĸ‚ĸ‚Š‚ĸA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Í‘O‚Š‚įŒl”Č‹æ‚đ‚ā‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Í‚ģ‚ę‚đƒXƒŒƒC[22]‚É—^‚Ļ‚ŊB‚ģ‚ę‚ɂ‚ĸ‚ācB

\\       Fo se ni no Suley se?

              Why did you give it to Sourey?

              ‚Č‚ēƒXƒŒƒC‚É—^‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           Kaŋ g ey go ga pala goy. Wo kaŋ hari ɲoŋo kaŋ ga haŋandi, ni ga faham da?

              The farmland I used to be at? You know about the canal, donft you?

              ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ē‚ĸ‚ŊŒl”Č‹æ‚Š‚ĸB…˜H‚ɂ‚ĸ‚Ä‚Í‚í‚Š‚é‚ˁB

\\       Huun. Ay faham. No-din wala?

              Hm. I do. That one over there, right?

              ‚Ķ‚ņB‚í‚Š‚č‚Ü‚ˇB‚ ‚ģ‚ą‚Ė‚Å‚ˇ‚æ‚ˁB

A)           Oho. S.L. nongo haro ga huro ka ka koy huro palaa ra din.

              Right. The canal through which water drains from S.L.fs place into the farmland.

              ‚¤‚ŪBS.L.[23]‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ĖęŠ‚Š‚į…‚ĒŒl”Č‹æ‚É“ü‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚­A‚ ‚Ė…˜H‚žB

\\       Nhun.

              Yes.

              ‚Ļ‚ĻB

A)           To, a naŋ ga, fun-fun ka doori palaa ra.

              Right, where water drains into the farmland.

              ‚ģ‚¤AŒl”Č‹æ‚ɐ…‚Ē—Ŧ‚ę‚ą‚Ū‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚žB

\\       Nhun, nhun.

              Right. Right.

              ‚Ļ‚ĻA‚Ļ‚ĻB

A)           Pala banda, ni bey, banda gonda funi kaŋ boro ga feeri haro ma fatta a si hari ka tarey.

              The back of the farmland. All right? At the back of the farmland, there is a hole you open to drain water. But it didnft work.

              Œl”Č‹æ‚Ė”w–Ę‚žB‚ĸ‚ĸ‚Š‚ĸA‚ģ‚Ė”w–ʂɁAl‚Ē‚ ‚¯‚Đ…‚đo‚ˇŒŠ‚Ē‚ ‚é‚Ė‚ž‚¯‚ĮA‚ģ‚ę‚Ē”r…‚ĩ‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB

\\       Huuhun.

              I see.

              ‚Ķ‚ņ‚Ķ‚ņB

A)           Hal hari hur a ra, a naŋ ga to met, haro si hun.

              When water entered the canal, it overflowed and wouldnft drain.

              …‚Ē“ü‚é‚ƁA‚ ‚Ķ‚ę‚Š‚Ļ‚Á‚Ä‚ĩ‚Ü‚ĸA…‚Ēo‚Ä‚ĸ‚Š‚Č‚ĸB

\\       Ha.

              Ha.

              ‚Í‚ B

A)           Haro ra n ir ga mo wi, ir ma jere ka ka tarey ka koy gisi tarey haro go palaa ra.

              Because the farmland was flooded with water, we had to work with half our body soaked in the water at the time of harvesting, and every time we got some rice crops, we had to get out to leave the crops outside.

              Œl”Č‹æ‚ɐ…‚Ē‚ ‚é‚Š‚įA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚͐…‚ɂ‚Š‚Á‚ÄŽûŠn‚š‚˂΂Ȃį‚¸A‚ģ‚ĖƒCƒl‚đŠO‚Ü‚Å’u‚Ģ‚É‚ĸ‚Š‚Č‚¯‚ę‚΂Ȃį‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB

\\       Ho, wo-wo ke a ga dor.

              Wow. That must have been hard.

              ‚Ų‚¨A‚ģ‚ę‚͂‚į‚ĸB

A)           Manti ni bey? Kaŋ hal i ga pala wi, i naŋ ga haro ka ra. Ni faham wo-din se?

              Donft you think? When you harvest in irrigated farmland, you first drain water. You know that, right?

              ‚ž‚낤BAHA‚ÅŽûŠn‚ˇ‚é‚΂ ‚ĸA‚Ü‚¸”r…‚ˇ‚éB‚ģ‚¤‚ž‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ą‚Ƃ́A‚í‚Š‚é‚ˁB

\\       Uhun, uhun. Ay faham ya.

              Sure. I know that.

              ‚Ļ‚ĻA‚Ļ‚ĻA‚í‚Š‚č‚Ü‚ˇB

A)           Da i ga tilam ya...

              When you replant crops . . .

              °‘Ö‚ˇ‚é‚Æ‚Ģ‚ɂ́cB

\\       Haro humba wala?

              You use a drainage.

              ”r…˜H‚Å‚Å‚ˇ‚æ‚ˁB

A)           Oho. Da i ga tilam m i naŋ ga haro ka ra to, haro si fun a ra. Haro ga huro mo da, jindo here funey din, zey ga naagu, zey ga naagu. Ga ti jiiro k ey ka ka taŋ, a man te kal saaku yegga.

              Right. When you replant your crops, you drain water, too. But the water wouldnft drain. In fact, more water would come in. We would close up the hole, but there would be another hole. Close it up, and another hole. So after a year, we only got nine bags of crops.

              ‚¤‚ŪB°‘Ö‚ˇ‚é‚Æ‚Ģ‚É‚āA”r…‚đ‚ˇ‚éB‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚Ē…‚Ēo‚Ä‚ĸ‚Š‚Č‚ĸB‚Š‚Ļ‚Á‚Đ…‚Ē“ü‚Á‚Ä‚­‚éAŒŠ‚Ė“üŒû‚đ‚Ķ‚ŗ‚ĸ‚Å‚ÍŒŠ‚Ē‚ ‚­A‚Ķ‚ŗ‚ĸ‚Å‚ÍŒŠ‚Ē‚ ‚­B‚ģ‚ę‚ňę”N‚Ē‚Ŋ‚Á‚Ä‚āA9‘Ü‚É‚ĩ‚Š‚Č‚į‚Č‚ĸB

\\       Ha.

              Ha.

              ‚Í‚ B

A)           Saaku egga mo n ey ga bana kooperatif borey se.

              And we used those nine bags to pay back the co-op guys.

              ‚ģ‚Ė9‘Ü‚ā‹Ļ“¯‘g‡‚ĖlŠÔ‚Ö‚ĖŽx•Ĩ‚É‚ ‚Ä‚ŊB

\\       Huuhun, Nhun. I kul?

              I see. All of them?

              ‚Ķ‚ņA‚Ķ‚ņB‘S•”‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           A kul. Ay koy d ey na no.

              All of them. We went and gave them the bags.

              ‘S•”Bs‚Á‚Ä“n‚ĩ‚ŊB

\\       Heey!

              Wow.

              ‚¤‚í‚ B

A)           Ay man du ba ciini fo hawrey.

              I got none.

              ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Í1‘Ü‚ā‚Ļ‚į‚ę‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB

\\       Hari, hari nooro ka ti saaku yegga.

              Water, the water cost nine bags.

              …A…‚Ė‘ã‹ā‚Ē9‘܁B

A)           Yegga. Palaa te saaku yegga.

              Nine bags. And the farmland generated nine bags.

              9‘܁B‚ģ‚ĖŒl”Č‹æ‚Å‚Å‚Ģ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚ā9‘܁B

\\       He, a si te.

              Huh. Thatfs not good.

              ‚Ö‚ĻB‚ģ‚ę‚Í‚æ‚­‚Č‚ĸB

A)           Ay koy na no. To, i ne i ga ka ka hari ɲoŋo n i ka ka simo, kooperatiif ga ka ka simo. Ay wo kampaaɲu fo ka ay man daŋ. Hiino kampaaɲo, ay farga, ay na no Suley se. Ay n a ma sambu, ay si baar'a Suley na sambu. Suley na sambu. Waati din i ka ka nongo simo jindo. I na jindo din simo. Sohoŋ a si hurgu. Amma hal haro ba a ra, a si fatta banda.

              I went over and gave them the bags. They, the co-op guys said, they would repair the canals with cement sometime soon. So I waited for the entire season. When the next farming season came, I got tired of waiting, so I gave the farmland to Sourey. I said, eTake it. Ifm done.f Sourey took it. Sourey took it. Then it got repaired with cement. They repaired the canal. Now the farmland is well-drained, except if you get too much water; it wonft drain. 

              ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚͍s‚Á‚āA“n‚ĩ‚ŊB‚ŗ‚Ä”Ū‚į‚́A‹Ļ“¯‘g‡‚́A‚ŋ‚Š‚ĸ‚¤‚ŋ‚É—p…˜H‚đƒZƒƒ“ƒg‚Å•âC‚ˇ‚é‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊBˆę‹G‚Ė‚ ‚ĸ‚ž‘Ō‚Á‚ŊBŽŸ‚Ė”_Šú‚É‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Í”æ‚ę‚āAƒXƒŒƒC‚É—^‚Ļ‚ŊB‚Æ‚ęA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Í‚¤‚ņ‚´‚č‚ž‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊBƒXƒŒƒC‚Ē‚Æ‚Á‚ŊBƒXƒŒƒC‚Ē‚Æ‚Á‚ŊB‚ģ‚¤‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚į—á‚ĖęŠ‚ĒƒZƒƒ“ƒg‚Å•Ü‘•‚ŗ‚ę‚ŊB‚ģ‚Ė…˜H‚đ•Ü‘•‚ĩ‚ŊB‚ą‚ę‚Ő…‚Í‚¯‚Ē‚æ‚­‚Č‚Á‚ŊB‚ā‚Á‚Æ‚ā…‚Ē“ü‚股‚Ŧ‚é‚ƁA”r…‚ŗ‚ę‚Č‚ĸ‚Ė‚ž‚ĒB

\\       Ha. Ya-din ga hal hoŋ a ga sendi no?

              Huh. Itfs still causing you trouble?

              ‚Ö‚ĻB‚ģ‚¤‚Č‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠĄ‚Å‚ā‚Ŋ‚ĸ‚Ö‚ņ‚Č‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           Hal hoŋ.

              Still.

              Ą‚Å‚āB

\\       A ga te daama mo...

              Itfs gotten a little better, but . . .

              ‘Ŋ­‚Í‚æ‚­‚Č‚Á‚Ŋ‚ĒcB

A)           Ohõ, a te daama. Amma a man ben. Zama banda si ka tarey. De keydiya waate, kaŋ ni ga di harey ga kaŋ gumo, a ga to met, haro, a si fatta. Ay fend'a. Ay ka ka gorey ka ka gorey te jiiri hinza, ay si ga goy pala. A ga far de g ey mo farey goy.

              Right. Itfs gotten a little better. But itfs not perfect. Thatfs because water doesnft drain from the back. Look. Water is overflowing during the harvesting season. Because it doesnft drain. I left it like that. I let it be, I let it be, and for three years, I didnft work at the irrigated farmland. I was just planting pearl millet and growing rice with rain water.

              ‚¤‚ŪA‘Ŋ­‚Í‚æ‚­‚Č‚Á‚ŊB‚ž‚ĒŠŽ‘S‚Å‚Í‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB”w–Ę‚Š‚į”r…‚ŗ‚ę‚Č‚ĸ‚Š‚į‚žBŒŠ‚Ä‚˛‚į‚ņAŽûŠn‚Ė‹GßA…‚Ē‚ ‚Ķ‚ę‚Š‚Ļ‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚éB…‚Ēo‚Ä‚ĸ‚Š‚Č‚ĸ‚Š‚į‚žB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚́A‚Ų‚¤‚Á‚Ä‚¨‚ĸ‚ŊB‚ģ‚Ė‚Ü‚Ü‚É‚ĩ‚āA‚ģ‚Ė‚Ü‚Ü‚É‚ĩ‚āA3”NŠÔA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚ÍAHA‚ÅŽdŽ–‚đ‚ĩ‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊBƒgƒEƒWƒ“ƒrƒGÍ”|‚Æ“V…ˆîė‚ž‚¯‚đ‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĸ‚ŊB

 

3-2.  ‘ã•\‰đ”C‘›“Ž‚đ‚ß‚Ž‚éŒę‚č @Remarks regarding the incident over delegatesf removal

A)           Ga ti lokoci fo te kaŋ Suley yoŋ wey da K.S., i borey jerey go Gurma ay si faham borey jerey se.

              Then one day, the guys here including Sourey and K.S., I donft know the other guys from the west bank.

              ‚ģ‚ņ‚Č‚ ‚é“úA‚ą‚ą‚ĖƒXƒŒƒC‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ÆK.S.[24]‚Ŋ‚ŋAŧŠŨ‚Ė‚Ų‚Š‚ĖlŠÔ‚Í‚í‚Š‚į‚Č‚ĸ‚ĒB

\\       Huun. Maayo, maayo mo ni s a bey, ni si bey?

              Huh. Do you know, do you know the names, names?

              ‚Ķ‚¤‚ņB–ŧ‘OA–ŧ‘O‚ā’m‚č‚Ü‚š‚ņ‚ŠA’m‚č‚Ü‚š‚ņ‚ŠB

A)           Borey? Shoŋ borey kaŋ na gey waafako te no ay si bey ka ben. Oho. I borey ga ba. I ne dalgey, gey naŋ g i ka. Dalgey mey ne gey si hun. To, ga ti paley wey,wo kaŋ la in da G.A. go wo, Abdulahi go jina, a koma koyo se. Ni bey, da hari nooru no boro gana, i ga taay'a. Pala iddu no koma lokaco din zempa ra.

              Them? I donft know the names of those guys who formed an alliance. Hmm. There were too many people. They tried to get rid of the delegates. The delegates? They said they were not going to leave. Then the farmland that G.A. and I had, itfs Abudullahi who has the farmland now, not G.A., but that farmland was taken away. If you canft pay for the water, they will take away your farmland. You know that, donft you? At that time, six parcels of farmland in the GMP were taken away.

              ˜A’†‚Š‚ĸB‚Ļ‚Ļ‚Æ“¯–ŋ‚ĩ‚ŊlŠÔ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ɂ‚ĸ‚ẮA’m‚į‚Č‚ĸB‚¤‚ŪBl‚Ē‚¨‚¨‚ˇ‚Ŧ‚éB”Ū‚į‚Í‘ã•\‚đœ‚ą‚¤‚Æ‚ĩ‚ŊB‘ã•\‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚Æ—Ŗ‚ę‚Č‚ĸ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚ŗ‚āA‚ģ‚¤‚ĩ‚Ä‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚ÆG.A[25]‚Ē‚ā‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚éŒl”Č‹æA‚ĸ‚Ü‚ÍG.A.‚Å‚Í‚Č‚­ƒAƒuƒhƒDƒ‰ƒC[26]‚Ē‚ā‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚éŒl”Č‹æA‚ģ‚ĖŒl”Č‹æ‚ĒŽ‚ŋŽå‚Š‚į“Ļ‚°‚ŊB…‚Ė‘ã‹ā‚Ē•Ĩ‚Ļ‚Č‚ĸ‚΂ ‚ĸAŒl”Č‹æ‚ĒŽķ‚¯‚Æ‚į‚ę‚é‚ą‚Æ‚Í’m‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚ˁB‚ģ‚Ė‚Æ‚Ģ‚́AGMP‚Ė‚Č‚Š‚Å6‚‚ĖŒl”Č‹æ‚ĒŽķ‚¯‚Æ‚į‚ę‚ŊB

\\       Uhun, uhun. Jempe sisu no a ga te?

              Right. In GMP6.

              ‚Ļ‚ĻA‚Ļ‚ĻBGMP6‚Å‚Å‚ˇ‚æ‚ˁB

A)           Oho. Pala iddu ka koma.

              Right. Six parcels of farmland were taken away.

              ‚¤‚ŪB6‚‚ĖŒl”Č‹æ‚ĒŽķ‚¯‚Æ‚į‚ę‚ŊB

\\       Uhun.

              Yes.

              ‚¤‚ņB

A)           Sohoŋ, ay ne Suley se, kaŋ gen d'ey go ga ciiti, ay ne a se hal i du pala, kul ay ga ba. A n ey se to. Kala han fo,ay go ga goro ne da, a n ey se wal senno kaŋ ay go ga ce, ay naŋ go ga hoorey wal ay naŋ ga cim. Ay ne wallaahi hal ay du pala, ay ga ba. A n ey se to.

              Then I said to Sourey when they were having the dispute, eIf they get farmland, I want it.f He said, eAll right.f A few days later, when I was sitting here, Sourey came and asked me if I was joking or I was serious about what I had said to him. I said, eI would like to get it if possible. Absolutely(Wallahi).f He said, eAll right.f

              ‚ģ‚ą‚Å‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚́AƒXƒŒƒC‚ɁA”Ū‚į‚ĒŒW‘ˆ‚đ‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚Æ‚Ģ‚ÉŒž‚Á‚Ŋ‚Ė‚žA‚ā‚ĩ”Ū‚į‚ĒŒl”Č‹æ‚đ‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚įA‚ē‚Đ‚Ų‚ĩ‚ĸB”Ū‚́A‚í‚Š‚Á‚Ŋ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB”“úŒãA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ē‚ą‚ą‚ɍĀ‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚ƁAƒXƒŒƒC‚Ē‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ē˜b‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ą‚Ƃ͏į’k‚Č‚Ė‚ŠA–{‹C‚Č‚Ė‚Š‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚́Aâ‘΂É(ƒƒbƒ‰[ƒq)A‚Ļ‚į‚ę‚é‚ā‚Ė‚Č‚į‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚ĸA‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB”Ū‚́A‚í‚Š‚Á‚Ŋ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB

\\       Uhun. Suley?

              Huh. Sourey.

              ‚Ķ‚¤‚ņBƒXƒŒƒC‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           Oho. Ga ti, han fo a ka, a n ey se ay ma koy tunandi Idiriisa pala, palaa wo kaŋ ay ga. A ne ir boro hinka gam i ga fersi. I ne in da E.M.. Ay ne to. Ay koy. Ay tunandi pala ra kambu fa. Ga ti hano, hano k i ga ciito te, komandaŋo ga ka, i koy ciito te, han din ey wo si n ey koy hal Mullay-koyre ka goy boro se.

              Right. Then he came one day and told me to cultivate Idelisafs farmland, in other words, the land that was going to be mine. He told me to split it with another person, E.M. I said, eSure.f I went there. I cultivated a part of the farmland. Then a few days passed by. On the day of the dispute, on the day when the commander came and the dispute broke out, I was in Moulaykoyre to work for my family.

              ‚¤‚ŪB‚ģ‚ę‚Å‚ ‚é“ú‚â‚Á‚Ä—ˆ‚āAƒCƒfƒŠƒbƒT‚ĖŒl”Č‹æA‚‚܂č‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ė‚ā‚Ė‚Æ‚Č‚éŒl”Č‹æ‚đk‹N‚ĩ‚ë‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB”Ū‚́A‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Æ‚ā‚¤‚Đ‚Æ‚č‚Å•Ē‚¯‚ë‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚ÆE.M.‚ž[27]B‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚́A‚í‚Š‚Á‚Ŋ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚͍s‚Á‚ŊB‚ģ‚ĖŒl”Č‹æ‚Ėˆę•û‚đk‹N‚ĩ‚ŊB‚ģ‚ę‚Š‚į”“ú‚Ŋ‚Á‚āAŒW‘ˆ‚Ē‚Č‚ŗ‚ę‚Ŋ“úAŽi—ߊ¯‚Ē‚â‚Á‚Ä—ˆ‚āAŒW‘ˆ‚Ē‚¨‚ą‚Č‚í‚ę‚Ŋ“úA‚ģ‚Ė“ú‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚́Ag“ā‚Ė‚Ŋ‚ß‚ÉŽdŽ–‚ĩ‚Ƀ€ƒbƒ‰ƒCƒRƒCƒŒ[28]‚ɍs‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚ŊB

\\       Uhun.Uhun. N? Fo se Mullay-koyre?

              I see. Oh, why did you go to Moulaykoyre?

              ‚Ķ‚Ū‚Ķ‚ŪB‚ĻB‚Č‚ēƒ€ƒbƒ‰ƒCƒRƒCƒŒ‚ցB

A)           Ay koy goy boro fo se

              I went there to work for someone.

              ‚ ‚él‚Ė‚Ŋ‚ß‚ÉŽdŽ–‚ĩ‚É‚ĸ‚Á‚ŊB

\\       A, a, a, ay faham.

              Oh, oh, I see.

              ‚ ‚ A‚ ‚ A‚ ‚ A‚í‚Š‚č‚Ü‚ĩ‚ŊB

A)           Oho, áfilaanaâ do ay koy.

              Hm. I went to see so-and-sofs [the speakerfs motherfs] brother.

              ‚¤‚ŪBáfilaanaâk˜bŽŌ‚Ė•ęl‚ĖŒZ’í‚Ė‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚ɍs‚Á‚Ŋ‚ņ‚žB

\\       Nn. Ay faham.

              Okay. I got it.

              ‚¤‚ņB‚í‚Š‚č‚Ü‚ĩ‚ŊB

A)           To. Ga ti i ka i na gey senno te. Borey ne gey na paley jerey nooyandi. Dalgey mey ne gey na jerey nooyandi. I ne pala marje n i ne, iddu no. I ne sohoŋ Suley yoŋ din kaŋ na dalgey kuudata din, i ma sambu pala iddu..., ihinza. Dalgey mey ma samb ihihinza ka no gey borey se. To, sohoŋ, ay wo kaŋ ay ka n di Suley yoŋ ga din, borey jerey mey ni ga di dalgey man..., dalga, ma ne a se ni ga ba. To, ga ti ga ka to ay du pala wo.

              Now, they came and talked to us. People said they got a part of the farmland, and the delegates said they also got a part of the farmland. They asked how many parcels of farmland, and they said six. They said that the guys including Sourey, who started the coup, take six, I mean, three, the delegates also take three, and told them to give them to their family. As for me, who was relying on Sourey and his people, some people [said], eYou should get it.f The delegates . . . the delegate [said], eTell him he can get it if he wants.f Thatfs how I got that farmland.   

              ‚ŗ‚āA‚ģ‚ę‚Å”Ū‚į‚Ē‚â‚Á‚Ä—ˆ‚āA˜b‚đ‚ĩ‚ŊBl‚Ņ‚Æ‚ÍŒl”Č‹æ‚Ėˆę•”‚đ—^‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚ÆŒž‚ĸA‘ã•\‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚āŒl”Č‹æ‚Ėˆę•”‚đ—^‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB”Ū‚į‚ÍŒl”Č‹æ‚Í‚ĸ‚­‚‚ž‚Æ‚ĸ‚ĸA”Ū‚į‚Í6‚‚Ɠš‚Ļ‚ŊB”Ū‚į‚́A‚ł̓N[ƒfƒ^‚đ‚¨‚ą‚ĩ‚ŊƒXƒŒƒC‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚́AŒl”Č‹æ6‚cA3‚‚đ‚Æ‚čA‘ã•\‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ā3‚‚đ‚Æ‚čAŽŠ•Ē‚Ėg“ā‚É—^‚Ļ‚ë‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚ŗ‚āAƒXƒŒƒC‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚É‘õ‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁAˆę•û‚Ėl‚Ņ‚Ƃ́u‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ē‚Ļ‚évk‚ÆŒž‚ĸlA‘ã•\‚Ŋ‚ŋcA‘ã•\‚́Au–]‚Ū‚Ė‚Č‚į‚ÆŒž‚Á‚Ä‚â‚ęvk‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊlB‚ŗ‚āA‚ą‚¤‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚킯‚ŁA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Í‚ ‚ĖŒl”Č‹æ‚đ‚Ļ‚ŊB

\\       Huun. Ay faham.

              Hmm. I get it.

              ‚Ķ‚¤‚ņB‚í‚Š‚č‚Ü‚ĩ‚ŊB

A)           Miso k ey te ka duw'a no-ya. Ay man nooru ka, yene heri kul ka. Ay naŋ di de, Suley, ay ne a se : áAy ga ba pala hal wa duâ. A ne ay se : áToâ. Ga ti han f a ka k ey ga naan ey se. Ga ti han fo a ka ir do kaŋ Suley ga naaney, e, naŋ go ga hoorey wal naŋ go cim. Ay ne wallaay naŋ go cim. A n ey se to. Ga ti a ci ga celey se. A n ey s ey ma koy tunanda ra,ay ne a si te senni. A ne wo-din mant ay senni no, ay ma koy tunandi de. Ay koy kambu fa tunandi. To, ga ti hano k i koy ciito te. Suley ne i ma G.A. hantum. Ga ti i na fersi in da G.A. game. Oho. Waato G.A. farga. Abdulahi huro a ra. Miso din n ey te ka du pala din.

              This is how I got it. I didnft use money or any sort of things to get it. I just got it. I said to Sourey, eIf you guys get it, I want it,f and he said to me, eAll right.f Then he came one day and tested me to see if I was just joking or if I was serious. I said I was absolutely(Wallahi) serious. He said he got it. He then told this to his people. He told me to go plowing. I said the delegates might not approve. He said it was not for me to worry about and told me to go plowing. I cultivated one part of the farmland. Then a dispute broke out. Sourey said to write down G.A., then they split the farmland and assigned it to me and G.A. Hmm. G.A. got tired of it, so Abudullahi took over. This is how I came to get my farmland.   

              ‚ą‚¤‚ĩ‚ŊŒoˆÜ‚Ē‚ ‚Á‚āA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Í‚Ļ‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Í‚¨‹ā‚đŽg‚Á‚Ŋ‚킯‚Å‚Í‚Č‚Š‚Á‚Ŋ‚ĩA‚Č‚É‚Š‚ĩ‚į‚Ė•¨‚đŽg‚Á‚Ŋ‚킯‚Å‚ā‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB‚Ŋ‚žA‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚ž‚¯‚ŊA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚̓XƒŒƒC‚Ɂu‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ē‚Ļ‚é‚Ė‚Č‚į‚Ų‚ĩ‚ĸv‚ÆŒž‚ĸA”Ū‚Í‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ɂu‚í‚Š‚Á‚Ŋv‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚ģ‚ę‚Å‚ ‚é“ú‚â‚Á‚Ä—ˆ‚Ä‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚đM—Š‚ĩ‚ŊB‚Ķ‚´‚¯‚Ä‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚ŠA‚ģ‚ę‚Æ‚ā–{‹C‚ŠB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚́Aâ‘΂É(ƒƒbƒ‰[ƒq)–{‹C‚ž‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB”Ū‚Í‚í‚Š‚Á‚Ŋ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚ģ‚ę‚Š‚į”Ū‚Í’‡ŠÔ‚É“`‚Ļ‚ŊB”Ū‚Í‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚ɍk‹N‚ĩ‚É‚ĸ‚¯‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Í‘ã•\‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ē‚ą‚Ė˜b‚É”[“ž‚ĩ‚Č‚ĸ‚Ė‚Å‚Í‚Č‚ĸ‚Š‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB”Ū‚Í‚ģ‚ę‚Í‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ė˜b‚Å‚Í‚Č‚ĸ‚ÆŒž‚ĸA‚ĸ‚ĸ‚Š‚įk‹N‚ĩ‚É‚ĸ‚¯‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚͈ę•û‚đk‹N‚ĩ‚ŊB‚ŗ‚āA‚ģ‚ę‚Š‚įŒW‘ˆ‚Ē‚Č‚ŗ‚ę‚ŊBƒXƒŒƒC‚ÍG.A.‚Ə‘‚­‚悤‚ÉŒž‚ĸA‚ģ‚ę‚Å”Ū‚į‚Í‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚ÆG.A.‚É•Ē‚¯‚ŊB‚¤‚ŪBG.A.‚Ē‚¤‚ņ‚´‚č‚ĩ‚āAƒAƒuƒhƒDƒ‰ƒC‚Ē“ü‚Á‚ŊB‚ą‚¤‚ĩ‚ŊŒoˆÜ‚ŁA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Í‚Ļ‚ŊB

 

3-3.  ‘ã•\‚ĖŒđ‘Ö‚Ė‰ß’ö‚Æ——R@The process and the reasons for the change of delegates

\\       Nn. A, G.A. banda Abdulahi no ka du, de soohoŋ mo Abdulahi no ka far?

              Letfs see. Um, Abudullahi got the farmland after G.A., so Abudullahi is cultivating it?

              ‚Ļ‚Ļ‚ƁB‚ ‚ AG.A.‚Ė‚ ‚ƃAƒuƒhƒDƒ‰ƒC‚Ē‚Ļ‚āA‚ģ‚ę‚ŃAƒuƒhƒDƒ‰ƒC‚Ēkė‚ĩ‚Ä‚é‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           Abdulahi ka g a ra. G.A. wo ka goy, goyo na taabandi. Ga ti Abdulahi duw'a. A ne Abdulahi ma sambu.Ya n ey te ka duw'a.

              Abudullahi is there. G.A. got tired of work, work. Thatfs why Abudullahi got the land. He said Abudullahi should take it. Thatfs how I got it.

              ƒAƒuƒhƒDƒ‰ƒC‚Ē‚ĸ‚é‚ņ‚žBG.A.‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁAŽdŽ–AŽdŽ–‚É”æ‚ę‚Ä‚ĩ‚Ü‚Á‚ŊB‚ģ‚ę‚ŃAƒuƒhƒDƒ‰ƒC‚Ē‚Ļ‚ŊB”Ū‚̓AƒuƒhƒDƒ‰ƒC‚Ē‚Æ‚ę‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚ą‚Ė‚悤‚É‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Í‚Ļ‚ŊB

\\       Ay faham. De waato din wo ke, may, may no ka ti hayo, deluge no?

              All right. By the way, who were, um, the delegates at that time?

              ‚í‚Š‚č‚Ü‚ĩ‚ŊB‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚Å“–Žž‚Í’N‚ĒA‚Ļ‚Ļ‚Æ‘ã•\‚ž‚Á‚Ŋ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           Waato din. Ne-wo Fuliyande ra lokuco din...

              At that time? At that time, here in Fuliyande . . .

              “–Žž‚Š‚ĸB‚ą‚ąƒtƒŠƒAƒ“ƒf‚Å‚Í“–ŽžcB

—ˆ–KŽŌ    Mate war hiire.

A visitor: Good evening.

              ‚ą‚ņ‚΂ņ‚́B

A)           Samuyi walla kal baani. Lokuoco din Buuba no ga dalge Fuliyande ra. Oho. To, Guruma here mo, e, Amiiru wo, a go dalge waati din.

              Good evening. At that time, Bouba was the delegate from Fuliyande. Right. On the west bank, it was, um, Amir. He was the delegate at that time.

              ‚ą‚ņ‚΂ņ‚́B“–Žž‚̓u[ƒo[29]‚ĒƒtƒŠƒAƒ“ƒf‚Ė‘ã•\‚ž‚Á‚ŊB‚¤‚ŪBŽŸ‚ɐŧŠŨ‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁA‚Ļ‚Ļ‚ƁAƒAƒ~[ƒ‹‚žA”Ū‚Ē“–Žž‚Í‘ã•\‚ž‚Á‚ŊB

\\       Sandi? Haha.

              Sandi? Ha.

              ƒTƒ“ƒfƒB‚Å‚ˇ‚Š[30]B‚Í‚ A‚Í‚ B

A)           Zama Sandi da Buuba gey n i ka han folloŋ.

              Thatfs because Sandi and Bouba were removed on the same day.

              ‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚Ė‚āƒTƒ“ƒfƒB‚ƃu[ƒoA”Ū‚į‚Ē“¯‚ļ“ú‚ɏœ‚Š‚ę‚Ŋ‚Š‚į‚ˁB

\\       Ha.

              Huh.

              ‚Í‚ B

A)           Boro, K.L. go dalge. E*. Ne-wo Fuliyande Buuba, Sandi, K.L., e, mey no koyne,dalgey ra. B.H..

              That guy, K.L., was also a delegate. Well* [The neighbor talks to the speaker, and the speaker responds.]. Here in Fuliyande, there was Bouba, Sandi, K.L., and, um, who else? Oh, B.H.

              ‚ ‚ĸ‚AK.L.[31]‚ā‘ã•\‚ž‚Á‚ŊB‚Ļ‚Ļ‚Æ*k—אl‚Ē˜b‚ĩ‚Š‚¯A˜bŽŌ‚ā“š‚Ļ‚élB‚ą‚ąƒtƒŠƒAƒ“ƒf‚Ēƒu[ƒo‚ŁAƒTƒ“ƒfƒB‚Ē‚ĸ‚āAK.L.‚Ē‚ĸ‚āA‚Ļ‚Ļ‚Æ‚ ‚Æ’N‚Ē‘ã•\‚É‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚ŠBB.H.[32].

\\       *

              *kAsks what the fatherfs name is.l

              *k•ƒ‚Ė–ŧ‚đ‚Ŋ‚¸‚Ë‚élB

A)           *Amma sohoŋ a si no, a si dalge.

              *kSays the fatherfs name.lBut hefs not here anymore. Hefs no longer a delegate.

              *k•ƒ‚Ė–ŧ‚đŒž‚¤l‚ž‚ĒĄ‚Í‚ĸ‚Č‚ĸAĄ‚Í‘ã•\‚Å‚Í‚Č‚ĸB

\\       Ha.

              Oh.

              ‚Í‚ B

A)           E, boro, M.H. Looga wono wo.

              Letfs see. That guy. M.H. That guy from Looga.

              ‚Ļ‚Ļ‚ƁA‚ ‚ĸ‚AM.H.[33]Aƒ[ƒK‚Ė‚ ‚ĸ‚B

\\       Huhun. Ha, ha, ha. Soohoŋ mo delge no wala?

              I see. I see. Hefs still a delegate, isnft he?

              ‚Ķ‚Ū‚Ķ‚ŪB‚Í‚ A‚Í‚ A‚Í‚ BĄ‚ā‘ã•\‚Å‚ˇ‚æ‚ˁB

A)           Oho me, ba sohoŋ.

              Youfre right. He still is.

              ‚ģ‚¤‚Æ‚āAĄ‚Å‚ā‚žB

\\       Hi banbata koyo? Un.

              Hefs the owner of a big boat, right? Yeah.

              ‘åŒ^‚Ėƒ{[ƒg‚ĖŽ‚ŋŽå‚Å‚ˇ‚æ‚ˁB‚¤‚ņB

A)           Da. May no koyne Looga ra. Da J.L.. A si dalge sohoŋ. Da, mey ti ifa? Looga dalge fa ga ba ka derey se. Loga.

              And who else was there in Looga? And J.L. Hefs not a delegate anymore. And who was the last one? I forget the last delegate from Looga. Looga.

              ‚ģ‚ę‚ƁA‚ ‚ƃ[ƒK‚Å‚Í’N‚ž‚Á‚Ŋ‚ŠB‚ģ‚ę‚ÆJ.L.[34]AĄ‚Í‘ã•\‚É‚ĸ‚Č‚ĸB‚ģ‚ę‚Æ‚ā‚¤‚Đ‚Æ‚č‚Í’N‚žBƒ[ƒK‚Ė‘ã•\‚ā‚¤‚Đ‚Æ‚č‚đ–Y‚ę‚Ä‚ĩ‚Ü‚Á‚ŊBƒ[ƒKB

\\       Sohoŋ...

              Then next . . .

              ‚ģ‚ę‚Å‚ÍŽŸ‚ɁcB

A)           Da S.M., Saaba. Da K.K.. A go dalgey ba sohoŋ gan da S.M.. Da. Mey ni ga ne. D.I. A si dalge sohoŋ.

              And S.M. and K.K. from Saaba. They are still delegates. And who else? D.I. He is not a delegate anymore.

              ‚ģ‚ę‚ƃT[ƒo‚ĖS.M.A‚ģ‚ę‚ÆK.K.[35]A”Ū‚į‚͍Ą‚Å‚ā‘ã•\‚žB‚ģ‚ę‚Æ’N‚ž‚Á‚Ŋ‚ŠBD.I.[36]BĄ‚Í‘ã•\‚É‚ĸ‚Č‚ĸB

\\       Man boro no?

              Where was he?

              ‚Į‚ą‚Ėl‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           Saaba. Borey wey no go no waati din.

              Saaba. They were [the delegates].

              ƒT[ƒoB”Ū‚į‚Ē“–Žžk‘ã•\‚Ė’nˆĘ‚Ɂl‚ĸ‚ŊB

\\       Huun.

              Huh.

              ‚Ķ‚¤‚ņB

A)           Un. Amma Looga wo, ay wo boro fo man jan ka der ey se.

              Hmm. But I forget the last one from Looga.

              ‚¤‚ŪB‚Ŋ‚žƒ[ƒK‚ɂ‚ĸ‚ẮA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Í‚ā‚¤‚Đ‚Æ‚č‚đ–Y‚ę‚Ä‚ĩ‚Ü‚Á‚Ŋ‚æB

\\       Huun. Huun. De waato kaŋ, e, sanga de, e, borey sanga borey man hin ka bana hari nooru, ga da se no i taay'a?

              I see. I see. And, um, some people, um, so some people couldnft pay for the water. Thatfs why their farmland was taken away. Is that right?

              ‚Ķ‚¤‚ņB‚Ķ‚¤‚ņB‚ģ‚ę‚Å‚Ļ‚Ļ‚ƁA‚ ‚él‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ĒA‚Ļ‚Ļ‚ƁA‚‚܂肠‚él‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ē…‚Ė‘ã‹ā‚đ•Ĩ‚Ļ‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊA‚ģ‚ę‚ÅŽķ‚¯‚Æ‚į‚ę‚Ŋ‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ą‚Æ‚Å‚ˇ‚ˁB

A)           Oho. I paley koma.

              Right. The farmland was taken away.

              ‚¤‚ŪBŒl”Č‹æ‚Ē“Ļ‚°‚ŊB

\\       I paley koma.De, dalgey wo ke i ga ba i ma cer fersi gey gamo ra hinne?

              The farmland was taken away. And the delegates. Did they want to split the farmland among themselves?

              Œl”Č‹æ‚Ē“Ļ‚°‚ŊB‚ģ‚ę‚Å‘ã•\‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁA”Ū‚į‚ž‚¯‚Å•Ē‚¯‚Ŋ‚Š‚Á‚Ŋ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           Ha'a. Sohoŋ kaŋ paley koma din? Borey no ga koy dalgey do, ma ne dalgey se hal pala koma ay ga ba. Ya-din n i te. Oho, To, ay mo borey wey kaŋ go ga yenge da dalgey, gey s ey har. Oho. Wol ni man faham?

              No. Well, you mean, when the farmland was taken away? I went to the delegates and told them that if farmland gets taken away, I want it. Thatfs what I did. Hmm. I, too, talked to them, the people who fought with the delegates. Hmm. Donft you understand?

              ‚ģ‚¤‚ļ‚á‚Č‚ĸB‚Ļ‚Ļ‚ƁAŒl”Č‹æ‚Ē“Ļ‚°‚ŊŽž‚Š‚ĸB‘ã•\‚Ė‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚ɍs‚Á‚āAŒl”Č‹æ‚Ē“Ļ‚°‚Ŋ‚įA‚Ų‚ĩ‚ĸ‚Æ‘ã•\‚ÉŒž‚Á‚Ŋ‚ņ‚žB‚ģ‚¤‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ņ‚žB‚¤‚ŪB‚ŗ‚Ä‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚āA‘ã•\‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Æ‘ˆ‚Á‚Ŋl‚Ņ‚ƁA”Ū‚į‚ɘb‚ĩ‚ŊB‚¤‚ŪB‚í‚Š‚į‚Č‚ĸ‚Š‚ˁB

\\       Ay man faham. Ya-din ga ha kaŋ se war te ciiti?

              I donft understand. So why did you guys have a dispute?

              ‚í‚Š‚č‚Ü‚š‚ņB‚ž‚Š‚įA‚Č‚ē‚ ‚Č‚Ŋ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ÍŒW‘ˆ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           Hun. Borey din, lokoco din i ne gey naŋ ga dalgey din ka.Oho. Ga no..., ga ti ciiti yoŋo k i te.

              Hmm. Those guys said they would remove the delegates. Hmm. Thatfs . . . Thatfs why we had a dispute.

              ‚Ķ‚ŪB‚ ‚Ė˜A’†‚͂ˁA“–Žž‘ã•\‚đœ‚­‚ÆŒž‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚ŊB‚¤‚ŪB‚ģ‚ę‚ĒcA‚ģ‚ę‚ÅŒW‘ˆ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚Ė‚žB

\\       Ha. N? Dalgey yoŋ kaayoŋo ciiti no? A, ayyo! Ay man faham, ya-din no.

              Oh. Hmm. The dispute was to remove the delegates. I see. I didnft understand that part. I see.

              ‚Í‚ B‚ņB‘ã•\‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚đœ‚­‚Ŋ‚ß‚ĖŒW‘ˆ‚ž‚Á‚Ŋ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB‚ A‚Č‚é‚Ų‚ĮB‚í‚Š‚Á‚Ä‚Ü‚š‚ņ‚Å‚ĩ‚ŊA‚ģ‚¤‚Č‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           Borey jerey ne gey m i ka, jerey mey si i bande.Ga ka to i ciiti. Sohoŋ boro yoŋ ka waafaku. ka ney gey g i ka. Ni faham.

              There were those who tried to remove them, and there were those who didnft. As a result, a dispute broke out. Now, some people allied under an agreement that they would remove them. You understand?

              ”Ū‚į‚đœ‚ą‚¤‚Æ‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĸ‚él‚Ņ‚Æ‚Ē‚ĸ‚āA‚ģ‚¤‚ĩ‚Č‚Š‚Á‚Ŋl‚Ņ‚Æ‚Ē‚ĸ‚éB‚ģ‚ĖŒ‹‰ĘAŒW‘ˆ‚É‚Č‚Á‚ŊB‚ŗ‚āAˆę•û‚Ėl‚Ņ‚Æ‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁA”Ū‚į‚đœ‚­‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ą‚Æ‚Å“¯–ŋ‚ĩ‚ŊB‚í‚Š‚é‚ˁB

\\       Ay faham.

              I understand.

              ‚í‚Š‚č‚Ü‚ĩ‚ŊB

A)           Borey jerey si waafako ra, ni bey a ga te ciiti. Sohoŋ hal ir ne i man ka presidaŋtarey, ay wo n i man ka, K.L. wo ne i sin ka.

              The rest of the people were not part of the alliance. Thatfs because it would lead to a dispute. For example, we said, eLetfs remove the board chair.f I said, eLetfs remove the board chair.f And K.L. said he wouldnft.

              ‚Ė‚ą‚č‚Ėl‚Ņ‚Ƃ́A‚ģ‚Ė“¯–ŋ‚Ė‚Č‚Š‚É‚ĸ‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊBŒW‘ˆ‚É‚Č‚é‚Š‚į‚ž‚æB‚Ŋ‚Æ‚Ļ‚΁A‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ē—Ž–’ˇ‚đœ‚ą‚¤A‚ą‚Ė‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ē—Ž–’ˇ‚đœ‚ą‚¤‚ÆŒž‚ĸAK.L.‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁAœ‚Š‚Č‚ĸ‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤B

\\       Ohoŋ, ohoŋ.

              I see.

              ‚Ķ‚Ū‚Ķ‚ŪB

A)           K.L. gonda cele, ay gonda cele, ni bey ir ga ciiti. O. Manti bora kul ka ne i m i ka. Borey jerey de. Oho

              K.L. has his people, and I have my people. You know? Then we fight. Right. Not everyone wants to remove them. Itfs only some people. Hmm.

              K.L.‚É‚Í’‡ŠÔ‚Ē‚ĸ‚āA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚É‚ā’‡ŠÔ‚Ē‚ĸ‚āA‚í‚Š‚é‚ž‚낤A‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ÍŒW‘ˆ‚ˇ‚éB‚¤‚ŪB‚Ũ‚Č‚Ē”Ū‚į‚đœ‚ą‚¤‚ÆŒž‚¤‚킯‚Å‚Í‚Č‚ĸ‚Ė‚žBˆę•”‚ž‚¯‚žB‚¤‚ŪB

\\       E, borey kaŋ, kaŋ ka, kaŋ ka ga ti Sandi, amiiru, a kaa?

              Well, the person, the person who was removed was Sandi. The chief was removed. Am I right?

              ‚Ļ‚Ļ‚ƁAœ‚Š‚ę‚ŊlAl‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚Ė‚ĒƒTƒ“ƒfƒBAŽņ’ˇ‚Ēœ‚Š‚ę‚Ŋ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ˁB

A)           A go Dalge waati din.

              He was a delegate at that time.

              “–Žž‚Í‘ã•\‚ž‚Á‚Ŋ‚ņ‚žB

\\       Hun, waati din amma war ka?

              I see. At that time. But you guys removed him.

              ‚Ķ‚ŪB“–Žž‚́B‚Å‚ā‚ ‚Č‚Ŋ‚Ē‚Ŋ‚Ēœ‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ˁB

A)           Ha'a. Waati din i man hun.

              No. He didnft leave at that time.

              ‚ĸ‚ĸ‚âB“–Žž‚Í—Ŗ‚ę‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB

\\       I man hun?

              He didnft?

              —Ŗ‚ę‚Č‚Š‚Á‚Ŋ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           I man hun.

              He didnft.

              —Ŗ‚ę‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB

\\       I man hun.

              He didnft.

              —Ŗ‚ę‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB

A)           Kokor banda no i n i barmey. Ni bey, da te jiiri hinnza kul i barmey. To, barmey fo yoŋ ga kaŋ ir koy, ga n i na, gen da Buuba wo barmey. I na Suley daŋ, Buuba wo dogo ra, i na Ziibo daŋ Sandi dogo ra. Oho..

              He was replaced afterwards. You see? They get replaced every three years. So at the next change, we went over there and replaced him with Bouba. Sourey replaced Bouba, and Z.T. replaced Sandi.

              ‚ģ‚ĖŒãA‘Ö‚Ļ‚į‚ę‚Ŋ‚Ė‚žB‚í‚Š‚é‚ˁA3”N‚˛‚Æ‚É‘Ö‚í‚éB‚ģ‚ę‚ÅŽŸ‚ĖŒđ‘Ö‚Ė‚Æ‚Ģ‚É‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚͍s‚Á‚āA”Ū‚Æ‚ą‚ą‚Ėƒu[ƒo‚đ‘Ö‚Ļ‚ŊBƒu[ƒo‚Ė‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚ɃXƒŒƒC‚Ē’u‚Š‚ę‚ŊBƒTƒ“ƒfƒB‚Ė‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚ɁAZ.T.[37]‚Ē’u‚Š‚ę‚ŊB

\\       Hun. E, ay man hafam. Ciiti ga ti fo no? Ci, ciiti may da may no ga ciiti?

              Huh. Um, I donft understand. What was the dispute about? Who were involved in the dispute?

              ‚Ķ‚¤‚ņB‚Ļ‚Ļ‚ƁA‚í‚Š‚į‚Č‚ĸ‚Å‚ˇ‚ˁBŒW‘ˆ‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚Ė‚͉Ŋ‚ž‚Á‚Ŋ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB‚¯AŒW‘ˆ‚́A’N‚Æ’N‚Ē‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           Borey kaŋ ne gey ma dalgey ka, gen da dalgey ka ciiti. Oho..

              Those who tried to remove the delegates and the delegates had a dispute. Hmm.

              ‘ã•\‚đœ‚ą‚¤‚Æ‚ĩ‚Ŋl‚Ņ‚ƁA”Ū‚į‚Æ‘ã•\‚ĒŒW‘ˆ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ņ‚žB‚¤‚ŪB

\\       Ifo se i ciiti no? Delgey da war?

              Why did you have a dispute? You guys and the delegates.

              ‚Č‚ēŒW‘ˆ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB‘ã•\‚Æ‚ ‚Č‚Ŋ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚́B

A)           Da alfarey. Waati din ir wey si urggaa ra. I ne gey m i ka, gey mey ne gey si hun.

              Co-op members. We werenft at the irrigated farmland at that time. They said, eLeave,f and the others said, eNo.f

              ‘g‡ˆõ‚ŗB“–Žž‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁAAHA‚É‚ĸ‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB”Ū‚į‚Í—Ŗ‚ę‚ë‚ÆŒž‚Á‚āA‘ŧ•û‚Í—Ŗ‚ę‚Č‚ĸ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB

\\       Hun. Gey si hun, e, Delgetara? Ayyo. May no?

              Ha. They didnft leave. Um, you mean they didn't leave the position of delegates, correct? I see. Who?

              ‚Ķ‚¤‚ņB”Ū‚į‚Í—Ŗ‚ę‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊA‚Ļ‚Ļ‚ƁA‘ã•\‚Ė’nˆĘ‚Š‚į‚Å‚ˇ‚ˁB‚Č‚é‚Ų‚ĮB’N‚ĒB

A)           Ehe?

              Hmm.

              ‚Í‚ B

\\       May no?

              Who?

              ’N‚ĒB

A)           Wo fo yoŋ dalgey? Borey kaŋ ay ci ni se waati din borey kaŋ go no.

              You mean who were the delegates? Those people Ifve told you. Those who were there at that time.

              ’N‚Ē‘ã•\‚ž‚Á‚Ŋ‚Š‚Á‚āB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ē‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚ÉŒž‚Á‚Ŋl‚Ņ‚ƁA“–Žž‚ĸ‚ŊŽŌ‚ž‚æB

\\       Borey kul? I, i, i man yedda. i, i man yedda ka fatta dargetara. Ho, ay faham, ay faham.

              All those people? The-, the-, they didnft, they didnft agree to leave the delegatesf position, right? Hm. I see. I see.

              ‚ ‚Ėl‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ũ‚Č‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB‚ŠA‚ŠA”Ū‚į‚͏ŗ‘øA”Ū‚į‚Í‘ã•\‚Ė’nˆĘ‚Š‚įo‚Ä‚­‚ą‚Æ‚đŗ‘ø‚ĩ‚Ü‚š‚ņ‚Å‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ˁB‚Ų‚¨A‚í‚Š‚č‚Ü‚ĩ‚ŊA‚í‚Š‚č‚Ü‚ĩ‚ŊB

A)           To, borey din kaŋ ne gey m i ka din, i jama si ba gumo. Oho. Ga ka to i yenge. Oho. To, borey din k i na paley no ir wey se, i n ey no, i na G.A. no. I na borey jerey k i no derey se palaa hinza din, boro hinka hinka gam i ga palaa fo fey. To, gey mey ne gey man yedda. To, ga ti i koy ciiti kaŋ kumandaŋo ka, a ne sohoŋ wol pala marje no borey din sa, sambu. I ne pala hinza gey n i nooyandi I ne to, shoŋ i ma ciito wi. Dalgey ma gaabu pala hinza Borey hendi mey wey k i ben ka no i ma fend'ey borey din si ma si taayey. Oho.

              Right. Those who said, eLetfs remove them,f that group wasnft that big. So it became a dispute. Right. And those who gave me farmland gave it to me and G.A. They gave three parcels of farmland to the rest of the people. I forget who, but they gave them to those people. One part of the farmland was divided by two people. Now, they said they were not going to condone it. So it became a dispute. The commander came and said some of the farmland was t-, taken. They said it was three parcels of farmland that were taken. They said, eAll right. The dispute is over.f The delegates take three parcels of farmland. The other people donft say, eDonft take it,f and let it be over. Hmm.

              ‚ģ‚¤A”Ū‚į‚đœ‚ą‚¤‚ÆŒž‚Á‚Ŋl‚Ņ‚Æ‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁA‚ģ‚Ėˆę’c‚Í‚ģ‚ę‚Ų‚Į‘å‚Ģ‚­‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB‚ģ‚ę‚Å‘ˆ‚ĸ‚É‚Č‚Á‚ŊB‚¤‚ŪB‚ģ‚ę‚ŁA‚ą‚Ė‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ÉŒl”Č‹æ‚đ—^‚Ļ‚Ŋl‚Ņ‚Ƃ́A‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚É—^‚ĻAG.A.‚É—^‚Ļ‚ŊB”Ū‚į‚Í3‚‚ĖŒl”Č‹æ‚đ‚Ė‚ą‚č‚Ėl‚Ņ‚ƁA‚ģ‚ę‚Ē’N‚ž‚Á‚Ŋ‚Š‚Í–Y‚ę‚Ä‚ĩ‚Ü‚Á‚Ŋ‚ĒA”Ū‚į‚É—^‚Ļ‚ŊA‚Đ‚Æ‚Â‚ĖŒl”Č‹æ‚Ē2l‚Å•Ē‚¯‚į‚ę‚ŊB‚ŗ‚āA”Ū‚į‚ÍŽÍ‚ŗ‚Č‚ĸ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚ģ‚ę‚ÅŒW‘ˆ‚É‚Č‚Á‚āAŽi—ߊ¯‚Ē—ˆ‚āA‚ĸ‚­‚‚ĖŒl”Č‹æ‚ĒA‚ƁA‚Æ‚į‚ę‚Ŋ‚Ė‚ž‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB”Ū‚į‚Í—^‚Ļ‚ŊŒl”Č‹æ3‚‚ž‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB”Ū‚į‚Í‚æ‚ĩA‚Å‚ÍŒW‘ˆ‚͏I‚í‚č‚ž‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‘ã•\‚ÍŒl”Č‹æ‚đ3‚‚ƂéB‚ā‚¤ˆę•û‚Ėl‚Ņ‚Æ‚āAŽķ‚Æ‚é‚Č‚ÆŒž‚킸AI‚í‚č‚É‚ˇ‚éB‚¤‚ŪB

\\       Ho. E, ay man faham ka boori. Ciito wo-wo ke, sanga boro kaŋ ga ba a ma sobey ka goro, e, dalgeetara de go no, de boro jerey ka ne i ma fatta. Wala?. De i ga sobey ka ciiti, de ciito wo ra no, e.., i ga uruggaa fersi wala?

              Ha. I still donft quite understand. In this dispute, letfs see, so some people wanted to stay in the delegatesf position, and the other side wanted them to leave. Right? Then they continued to fight, and during the dispute, the irrigated farmland was divided. Am I right?

              ‚Ų‚¨B‚Ü‚ž‚æ‚­‚í‚Š‚č‚Ü‚š‚ņB‚ą‚ĖŒW‘ˆ‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁA‚Ļ‚Ļ‚ƁA‚‚܂č‘ã•\‚Ė’nˆĘ‚É‚Æ‚Į‚Ü‚č‚Ŋ‚ĸl‚Ē‚ĸ‚āA‚ā‚¤ˆę•û‚͏o‚ë‚ÆŒž‚¤B‚ģ‚¤‚Å‚ˇ‚ˁB‚ģ‚ę‚ÅŒW‘ˆ‚ĩ‚‚¯‚āA‚ģ‚ĖŒW‘ˆ‚Ė‚Č‚Š‚ŁAAHA‚Í•Ē‚¯‚į‚ę‚Ŋ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ˁB

A)           Paley.

              Farmland.

              Œl”Č‹æB

\\       Paley. I ga waani me. Sanga faro fersi senni, e, delgetara fata yoŋ senni wo ke i ga waani wala? Amma...

              Farmland. Thatfs different. I mean, the story about dividing the field and, um, the story about leaving the delegatesf position are different. But . . .

              Œl”Č‹æ‚ĒBˆá‚¤‚Å‚ĩ‚傤B‚‚܂蔨‚đ‚킯‚é˜b‚ƁA‚Ļ‚Ļ‚ƁA‘ã•\‚Ė’nˆĘ‚đo‚é˜b‚́Aˆá‚¤‚Å‚ĩ‚åB‚¯‚ę‚ĮcB

A)           Ikkul cer bande n i go.

              They are two sides of the same coin.

              •\— ˆę‘Ė‚ŗB

\\       Ayyo!

              Oh yeah?

              ‚ģ‚¤B

A)           Oho. Sohoŋ kaŋ i ne i ma fatta din, i ne... Ha'a. Ayyo to, kaŋ paley koma din,borey kaŋ go n i ma fatta din, borey koy i do i ne, boro yoŋ koy i do ka ne ka ne gey ga ba pala. Boro yoŋ koy dalgey do ka ne gey ga ba pala. Gey mey n i no, sohoŋ ay wo ni m ey ne Suley se n ey ci ka ne wo ay ga ba pala. Ay man ci dalgey kul se, Suley si dalge waati din, ay mana, ay ne Suley se hal i du kul ey ga ba pala. A n ey se ayyo. Ay cine fo yoŋ mey ci i borey se. To, ga ti i n ey no palaa din.

              Right. When they told them to leave, they . . . No. Well, when the farmland was taken away, there were some people who went to those guys who told them to leave, and these people said they wanted farmland. The other people went to the delegates and said they wanted farmland, and the delegates gave farmland to them. As for me, I told Sourey that I wanted farmland. I didnft say that to the delegates at all. Sourey wasnft a delegate at that time. I didnft say it. I said to Sourey, eIf you get some farmland, I want it.f He said to me, eAll right.f People like me talked to their family. Right. Thatfs how they gave me farmland.

              ‚¤‚ŪB‚‚܂čo‚Ä‚¯‚ÆŒž‚Á‚Ŋ‚Æ‚ĢA”Ū‚į‚́cB‚ĸ‚ĸ‚âB‚æ‚ĩAŒl”Č‹æ‚Ē“Ļ‚°‚Ŋ‚Æ‚ĢAo‚Ä‚ĸ‚¯‚ÆŒž‚Á‚Ŋ˜A’†A”Ū‚į‚Ė‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚ɍs‚Á‚Ŋl‚Ņ‚Æ‚Ē‚ĸ‚āA‚ģ‚Ėl‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ĒŒl”Č‹æ‚Ē‚Ų‚ĩ‚ĸ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚Ŋ‚킯‚žB‚ā‚¤ˆę•û‚Ėl‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚́A‘ã•\‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‚Æ‚ą‚ë‚ÉŒl”Č‹æ‚Ē‚Ų‚ĩ‚ĸ‚ÆŒž‚ĸ‚ɍs‚ĢA‘ã•\‚ā”Ū‚į‚É—^‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚킯‚žB‚ģ‚ę‚Å‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁAƒXƒŒƒC‚ÉŒl”Č‹æ‚Ē‚Ų‚ĩ‚ĸ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚Ŋ‚킯‚žB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚́A‘ã•\‚ɂ͈ęØ‚ģ‚¤Œž‚í‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊBƒXƒŒƒC‚Í“–Žž‚Ü‚ž‘ã•\‚Å‚Í‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚ÍŒž‚í‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚̓XƒŒƒC‚ɁA‚ā‚ĩ‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚įAŒl”Č‹æ‚Ē‚Ų‚ĩ‚ĸ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB”Ū‚Í‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ɂu‚í‚Š‚Á‚Ŋv‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ė‚悤‚Č˜A’†‚ĒA‚ģ‚Ėg“ā‚ÉŒž‚ĸ‚É‚ĸ‚Á‚Ŋ‚킯‚žB‚ģ‚¤A‚ą‚¤‚ĩ‚Ä”Ū‚į‚Í‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚ÉŒl”Č‹æ‚đ—^‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚킯‚žB

\\       Ya-din ga delugey mo kaŋ ga ba, kaŋ ga ba i ma sobey ka goro delugetara. Wo-wo ke, gan da borey kaŋ go dergey din bande gamo ra hinne no i ga ba i ma fersi gey, urugga.

              So the delegates, the delegates also wanted to stay in their position. They wanted to divide the irrigated farmland among them and the people on their side.

              ‚‚܂č‘ã•\‚āA‘ã•\‚ā”Ū‚į‚Í‘ã•\‚Ė’nˆĘ‚É‚Æ‚Į‚Ü‚č‚‚Â¯‚Ŋ‚ĸB‚‚܂čA”Ū‚į‚Æ‘ã•\‚Ė‘¤‚É‚ĸ‚él‚Ņ‚Æ‚ž‚¯‚ŁA”Ū‚į‚ĖAHA‚đ•Ē‚¯‚Ŋ‚ĸ‚ƁB

A)           Gey borey se.

              For their family.

              ŽŠ•Ē‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ėg“ā‚Ė‚Ŋ‚߂ɁB

\\       Gey borey se.

              For their family.

              ŽŠ•Ē‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ėg“ā‚Ė‚Ŋ‚߂ɁB

A)           Pala. Oho

              Divide farmland. Yeah.

              Œl”Č‹æ‚đ‚ˁB‚¤‚ŪB

\\       To, sanga de Suley wo ke a ne wo a si te?

              Right. Thatfs why Sourey said, eThatfs not good.f

              ‚ģ‚¤A‚ž‚Š‚įƒXƒŒƒC‚́A‚æ‚­‚Č‚ĸ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚Ŋ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ˁB

A)           Oho, gey mey, gey ciney, gey mey ne wo si te.

              Hmm. They said, among themselves, eThatfs not good.f

              ‚¤‚ŪB”Ū‚į‚́A”Ū‚į‚Ė‘¤‚ŁA‚ģ‚ę‚Í‚æ‚­‚Č‚ĸ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚Ŋ‚Ė‚žB

\\       De i ma fatta dergetara. Ahã, to, de i ciiti. De, e, sanga, dergey wo ke, e, dergey kul i man dira wala? I man fatta?

              Then they demanded the delegates give up their positions. I see. Thatfs why they had the dispute. And letfs see. So the delegates. Well, did the delegates leave? Did they leave?

              ‚ģ‚ę‚Å‘ã•\‚Ė’nˆĘ‚Š‚įo‚ëB‚ģ‚¤–₤‚ŊB‚Ö‚ĻA‚ģ‚ę‚ÅŒW‘ˆ‚đ‚ĩ‚ŊB‚ģ‚ę‚ƁA‚Ļ‚Ļ‚ƁA‚ž‚Š‚įA‘ã•\‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁA‚Ļ‚Ļ‚ƁA‘ã•\‚͏o‚Ä‚ĸ‚Ģ‚Ü‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŠBo‚Ü‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŠB

A)           E, tamo din.

              Well. At that time?

              ‚Ļ‚Ļ‚ƁB‚ģ‚Ė‚Æ‚Ģ‚Š‚ĸB

\\       Tamo din.

              At that time.

              ‚ģ‚Ė‚Æ‚Ģ‚Å‚ˇB

A)           Tamo din her kul man fatta.

              They didnft leave at all.

              ‚ģ‚Ė‚Æ‚Ģ‚Í‚Ü‚Á‚Ŋ‚­o‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB

\\       Her kul man fatta.

              They didnft leave at all.

              ‚Ü‚Á‚Ŋ‚­o‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB

A)           Her kul man fatta.

              They didnft leave at all.

              ‚Ü‚Á‚Ŋ‚­o‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB

\\       Amma hayo faro wo ke, i ma fersi dergey nda e, ha, borey gamo ra?

              But the field, they wanted to split it among the delegates and, um, uh, their family.

              ‚ĩ‚Š‚ĩ‚ģ‚ĖA”¨‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁA”Ū‚į‚Í‘ã•\‚ƁA‚Ļ‚Ļ‚ƁA‚ ‚ A‚ģ‚Ėg“ā‚Ė‚Č‚Š‚ž‚¯‚Å•Ē‚¯‚Ŋ‚Š‚Á‚ŊB

A)           Da borey sanga áOrobelâ n i ga n i se. Orobel. I ma fersi gan d'ey game. Oho.

              Their family. eOllobel.f Thatfs what we call them. Ollobel. They said to divide it with them. Hm.

              ‚ģ‚Ėg“āA‚‚܂čuƒIƒƒxƒ‹v‚Æ‚ģ‚¤‚ĸ‚¤l‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ė‚ą‚Æ‚đŒž‚¤‚Ė‚žBƒIƒƒxƒ‹B”Ū‚į‚Æ•Ē‚¯‚ë‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚¤‚ŪB

\\       De wo-din banda no, jiiri hinza banda, wa, waato kaŋ lokkoco to, e, i na(nii) barmey.

              And then after that, three years later, when the time came, they were replaced. Thatfs what you are saying.

              ‚ģ‚ę‚Å‚ģ‚ĖŒã‚ɁA3”NŒã‚ɁA‚ģ‚Ė‚Æ‚Ģ‚Ē—ˆ‚Ŋ‚Æ‚Ģ‚ɁA‘Ö‚Ļ‚į‚ę‚ŊA‚ƁB

A)           I ne i ga dalgey barmey. Ga ti k ir ka ka koy Amiiru koyre, i ne dalgey barmey yoŋ to. Ga ti na Buuba din ka, i na Suley daŋ. I na Sandi ka, i na Ziibo daŋ. Looga here din mo i na Joori ka, i na Alzuma(Hallasi) daŋ. Oo

              They said, eLetfs change the delegates.f So we went to the chieffs house and told him that we had replacements. Then we replaced Bouba with Sourey. We replaced Sandi with Z.T. In Looga, we replaced J.L. with A.H. Hmm.

              ”Ū‚į‚Í‘ã•\‚đ‘Ö‚Ļ‚悤‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚ģ‚ę‚Å‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‘ē’ˇ‘î‚ɍs‚ĢAŒđ‘Ö‚Ē—ˆ‚Ŋ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚ŊB‚ģ‚ę‚Ńu[ƒo‚đœ‚ĢAƒXƒŒƒC‚đ’u‚ĸ‚ŊBƒTƒ“ƒfƒB‚đœ‚ĢAZ.T.‚đ’u‚ĸ‚ŊBƒ[ƒK‚Ė‚Ų‚¤‚Å‚āAJ.L.‚đœ‚ĸ‚āAA.H.[38]‚đ’u‚ĸ‚ŊB‚¤‚ŪB

\\       Huun. Wo-wo ke mate kaŋ cine no i ga suuba, dargey wo ke?

              I see. How did you choose the delegates at that time?

              ‚Ķ‚¤‚ņB‚ģ‚Ė‚Æ‚Ģ‚Í‚Į‚¤‚â‚Á‚Ä‘ã•\‚đ‘I‚ņ‚ž‚Ė‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           Suuba yoŋo?

              How did we choose them?

              ‘I‚Ņ•û‚Š‚ĸB

\\       Hn. Sappa? I ga te, i ga sappa?

              Yes. Did you have an election? Was there an election?

              ‚Ļ‚ĻB‘I‹“‚đ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠA‘I‹“‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           I si sappe.Koyra borey de ma suuba bora k i ga ba. Oho. Ya-din n i ga te.

              There wasnft an election. The people in the settlement chose who they liked. Right. Thatfs how we did it.

              ‘I‹“‚ļ‚á‚Č‚ĸBW—Ž‚ĖlŠÔ‚ĒD‚Ü‚ĩ‚ĸl‚đ‘I‚ԁB‚¤‚ŪB‚ģ‚¤‚ˇ‚éB

\\       Ya-din no.

              Is that so? 

              ‚ģ‚¤‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           Oho. I si sappe.

              Is that so?

              ‚¤‚ŪB‘I‹“‚ļ‚á‚Č‚ĸB

\\       Huun. Dergetara wo ke a ka kaan no wala a si kaan no?

              Huh. I wonder if the delegatefs status has no appeal.

              ‚Ķ‚¤‚ņB‘ã•\‚Ė’nˆĘ‚Í‚¤‚Ü‚Ũ‚Ē‚Č‚ĸ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚Š‚ˁB

A)           Wallaahi ay wo man bey ka hur a ra.

              Wallahi. Ifve never had the position.

              ƒƒbƒ‰[ƒqA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Í“ü‚Á‚Ŋ‚ą‚Æ‚Ē‚Č‚ĸ‚Š‚į‚ȁB

\\       Huun. Ni wo ke ni si baar'a?

              Huh. You wouldnft like it?

              ‚Ķ‚¤‚ņB‚ ‚Č‚Ŋ‚͍D‚Ģ‚ļ‚á‚Č‚ĸ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           Sohoŋ da bumbo ke ay si baar'a, shoŋ da bumbo ke, a man huro ay lakkalo ra. Oho.

              I wouldnft want to do it even if I were asked. Even if I were asked to do it, it wouldnft be worth considering. Hmm.

              ‚Ŋ‚Æ‚Ļ˜b‚Ē—ˆ‚Ŋ‚Æ‚ĩ‚Ä‚āŒ™‚ž‚ˁB‚Ŋ‚Æ‚Ļ˜b‚Ē—ˆ‚Ŋ‚Æ‚ĩ‚Ä‚āAl—ļ‚É’l‚ĩ‚Č‚ĸB‚¤‚ŪB

\\       Derge wo ke goy fo dumi no i ga te?

              What do delegates do?

              ‘ã•\‚Í‚Į‚ņ‚ČŽdŽ–‚đ‚ˇ‚é‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           Sohoŋ dalgey wey hal marga te huwo do, i jine borey din i ga ca ka ne dalgey kul ma ka. I ma deed i se wo kaŋ te, i ma ka ya, ir koyra wono k i daŋ B.A. wo, a ma ka a ma har ir se wo kaŋ boŋ gey koy marga Jomoona. Oho. I ne war ma ka ka goy filaana te han filaana. I ne her filaana wo ya-cine gey go ga te, a ma ka ka ci ir se. Da urugga wo, haro wo, i ga hawzu. Da n pala ga ba ka hasara ni ga har i se i ma ka ka diy'a. Da a ga ba hari,  ma ni cina wono daabu, bora kaŋ gonda hari din, i ma wono daabu. I ma n wono haŋandi. Da wan ne war ga fitina, di ka ka di ni kaŋ sinda cimi, i ga ne ma naŋ da n man naŋ, i ga n jukke nooru. Oho. Ya-din i ti goyo k i ga te uruggaa ra.

              What delegates do is, when there is a meeting at the head office, the headmen tell all the delegates to get together. They say, eWefll discuss what to do, so come.f In this settlement, itfs B.A. He will come to tell us what was discussed in the meeting in Djomona. Hm. He says to us, eDo this on this day,f and eThey do this in that way.f He tells us. And in the irrigated farmland, theyfre the ones in charge of the water there. If your farmland seems to be in a bad shape, you tell them and have them look at it. If you want water, but if yours is closed up, you close up the ones of those who have a lot of water and irrigate your land. And if you guys are bickering, they decide who is wrong. They let it go sometimes, and they fine fees at other times. Hmm. Thatfs the type of work they do at irrigated farmland.

              ‘ã•\‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁAŽ––ą‹Į‚ŏW‰ī‚Ē‚ ‚é‚΂ ‚ĸA‘O‚Ėl‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ĒA‘ã•\‚Í‚Ũ‚ȏW‚Ü‚é‚悤‚É‚ÆŒž‚¤B‚Į‚¤‚ˇ‚é‚Š‚đ˜b‚ˇ‚Š‚įA—ˆ‚ĸ‚ÆŒž‚¤B‚ą‚ĖW—Ž‚Å‚Í‚ģ‚ą‚ĖB.A.[39]‚ž‚ĒA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ɃWƒ‡ƒ‚ƒi‚Å‚ĖW‰ī‚Řb‚ĩ‚ ‚í‚ę‚Ŋ‚ą‚Æ‚đ“`‚Ļ‚é‚Ŋ‚߂ɁA”Ū‚Ē—ˆ‚é‚ą‚Æ‚É‚Č‚éB‚¤‚ŪB‚ą‚ę‚ą‚ę‚Ė“ú‚É‚ą‚ę‚ą‚ę‚ĖŽdŽ–‚đ‚ĩ‚ë‚ÆŒž‚í‚ę‚éB‚ą‚¤‚ĸ‚¤‚ą‚Æ‚đ‚ ‚ ‚ĸ‚¤‚Ķ‚¤‚É‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚ÆŒž‚¤B‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚É“`‚Ļ‚į‚ę‚éB‚ģ‚ę‚ÆAHA‚ł́A‚ģ‚Ė…‚́A”Ū‚į‚ĒŠÄ“‚ˇ‚éB‚ā‚ĩŒl”Č‹æ‚Ē‰ķ‚ę‚ģ‚¤‚Č‚įA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Í”Ū‚į‚ɘb‚ĩAŒŠ‚Ä‚ā‚į‚¤B‚ā‚ĩ…‚Ē‚Ų‚ĩ‚ĸ‚Č‚įA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ė‚ā‚Ė‚Ē‚Ķ‚ŗ‚Ē‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚Č‚įA…‚đ‚Ŋ‚­‚ŗ‚ņ‚ā‚Á‚Ä‚ĸ‚éŽŌ‚Ė‚ā‚Ė‚đ‚Ķ‚ŗ‚ŦA‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ė‚ā‚Ė‚đŸķŸō‚ˇ‚éB‚ģ‚ę‚Æ‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ĒŒû˜_‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĸ‚Ŋ‚įAŗ‚ĩ‚­‚Č‚ĸ‚Ų‚¤‚đŒŠ‹É‚ßA‚ ‚é‚Æ‚Ģ‚É‚Í‚Ų‚¤‚Á‚Ä‚¨‚ĢA‚ ‚é‚Æ‚Ģ‚É‚Í”ą‹ā‚đ‰Č‚ˇB‚¤‚ŪB‚ģ‚¤‚ĸ‚¤ŽdŽ–‚đAHA‚Å‚Í‚ˇ‚é‚Ė‚žB

\\       I ga du nooru no? Saleer.

              Do they get paid? I mean, wages.

              ‚¨‹ā‚Í‚Ļ‚į‚ę‚é‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB‹‹—ŋ‚Å‚ˇB

A)           K i bana?

              Get paid?

              •Ĩ‚í‚ę‚é‚Š‚ĸB

\\       Oho. banando.

              Payment.

              Žx•Ĩ‚Å‚ˇB

A)           I si bana.

              They donft get paid.

              •Ĩ‚í‚ę‚Č‚ĸB

\\       A si no. A si kaanu me*.

              No payment? I guess there is no appeal* [laughs].

              ‚Č‚ĸ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB‚¤‚Ü‚Ũ‚Í‚Č‚ĸ‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚Ë*kÎ‚¤lB

A)           I si bana ley!

              They get nothing.

              ‚Ü‚Á‚Ŋ‚­•Ĩ‚í‚ę‚Č‚ĸB

\\       Ho. Ya-din no.

              Ha. Is that right?

              ‚Ų‚¨B‚ģ‚¤‚Č‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           Kal de jindey din,kaŋ ga haŋandi, Dalgey kul gonda jindo ka a ga lakkal. Hal i na ma wi, ikkulu gonda nooru keyna k i g i no. Ga mo a si ba gumo. Oho.

              ‹‹…˜Hk‚đ‚ß‚Ž‚éŽx•Ĩl‚ž‚¯‚žB‘ã•\‚Í‚Ũ‚ČŽŠ•Ē‚ĒŠĮ—‚ˇ‚鐅˜H‚đ‚ā‚BŽûŠn‚ĒI‚í‚Á‚Ŋ‚įA‚Ũ‚Č‚Ē­‚ĩ‚‚¨‹ā‚đ“n‚ˇB‚ģ‚ę‚ā‚ŗ‚Ų‚Į‘Ŋ‚­‚Č‚ĸB‚¤‚ŪB

              Only [the payment] for the canal. All delegates have canals that they manage. Once harvesting is done, everyone pays them a small fee. And thatfs not that much, either. Hmm.

A)           Ya-din no. Hun. De K.L. wo ke jampe siis, e, sekureteer no?

              Is that so? Ha. And K.L. was GMP6fs, um, clerk?

              ‚ģ‚¤‚Č‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB‚Ķ‚¤‚ņB‚ģ‚ę‚ÅK.L.‚ÍGMP6‚ĖA‚Ļ‚Ļ‚ƁA‘‹L‚Č‚ņ‚Å‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚Á‚¯B

A)           N? Ha'a.

              Huh? No.

              ‚ņB‚ĸ‚ĸ‚âB

\\       Presidaŋ? Huhun?

              Director. I see.

              —Ž–’ˇB‚Ķ‚ņ‚Ķ‚ņB

A)           Urugga kul.

              For the entire irrigated farmland.

              AHA‘S‘Ė‚Ė‚žB

\\       Urugga kul wone?

              For the entire irrigated farmland.

              AHA‘S‘Ė‚ĖB

A)           Sekureteer no.

              A clerk.

              ‘‹L‚žB

\\       Wala?

              Right?

              ‚ģ‚¤‚Č‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚æ‚ˁB

A)           Oho. Uruggaa kul.

              Right. For the entire irrigated farmland.

              ‚¤‚ŪBAHA‘S‘Ė‚Ė‚žB

\\       Oho. áfilaanaâ bine?

              Yes. What about so-and-so?

              ‚Ļ‚ĻBĸ–^Ŗ‚Í‚Į‚¤‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

A)           Urugga kul puresidan no.

              The head office manager for the entire irrigated farmland.

              AHA‘S‘Ė‚ĖŽ––ą‹Į’ˇ‚žB

\\       Puresidan go no sekureteer mo go no. Ay faham sohoŋ.

              There is the head office manager and the secretary-general. Now I understand.

              Ž––ą‹Į’ˇ‚Ē‚ĸ‚āA‘‹L’ˇ‚Ē‚ĸ‚éB‚悤‚â‚­‚í‚Š‚č‚Ü‚ĩ‚ŊB

A)           Terezoriye mo go no. Oho.

              There is also an accountant. Hmm.

              ‰īŒv‚ā‚ĸ‚é‚ŧB‚¤‚ŪB

\\       Ay faham. Ya-din no.

              I see. Is that right?

              ‚í‚Š‚č‚Ü‚ĩ‚ŊB‚ģ‚¤‚Č‚ņ‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

k˜^‰š’âŽ~l[End of recording]

 

4.      ƒCƒXƒu‚ĖŒę‚č(2007”N2ŒŽ24“ú) @Isboufs Remarks (February 24, 2007)

4-1.  A–¯’nŠú‚ĖŽņ’ˇˆĘ‘nŨ杁@Story of the creation of the chief during the colonial era

k‘O—Ēl[Earlier part omitted]

\\        Ya-din ga Gorɲo-haamey borey laabo wo ke man no a go? Fuliyande bumbo mo manti gey wone nda, Koorugungu mo manti gey wone nda. Man no gey labu go?

               That leads to my question: where is the land of the people of Gornyo haamey? Fuliyande is not theirs, and nor is Korgoungou Island. Where is their land?

               ‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ą‚Ƃ́AƒSƒ‹ƒjƒ‡Eƒn[ƒƒC‚Ėl‚Ņ‚Æ‚Ė“y’n‚Í‚Æ‚ĸ‚¤‚ƁA‚Į‚ą‚É‚ ‚č‚Ü‚ˇ‚ŠBƒtƒŠƒAƒ“ƒfŽŠ‘Ė‚Í”Ū‚į‚Ė‚ā‚Ė‚Å‚Í‚Č‚ĸ‚ĩAƒR[ƒ‹ƒOƒ“ƒO“‡‚ā”Ū‚į‚Ė‚ā‚Ė‚Å‚Í‚Č‚ĸB‚Į‚ą‚É”Ū‚į‚Ė“y’n‚Í‚ ‚é‚Ė‚Å‚ˇ‚ŠB

K)[40]         Naŋ man ma nango kaŋ n ir dumbandi ni se?

               I made it clear for you, but you didnft understand?

               ‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Ē‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ė‚Ŋ‚ß‚É‚ģ‚ĖęŠ‚đØ‚č‚ž‚ĩ‚Ä‚â‚Á‚Ŋ‚Ė‚ɁA‚í‚Š‚į‚Č‚Š‚Á‚Ŋ‚Ė‚Š‚ĸB

\\        Ay si bey.

               I donft know.

               ’m‚č‚Ü‚š‚ņB

I)[41]          Gorɲo wo, hangan, hal cimo ni ga ba.

               Gornyo is . . . Listen. If you want the truth.

               ƒSƒ‹ƒjƒ‡‚Í‚ž‚ˁA•ˇ‚Ģ‚Č‚ŗ‚ĸA‚ā‚ĩ‚¨‚Ü‚Ļ‚Ē^ŽĀ‚đ–]‚ņ‚Å‚ĸ‚é‚Č‚įB

\\        Cimi no ay ga ba.

               I do want the truth.

               ^ŽĀ‚đ–]‚ņ‚Å‚ĸ‚Ü‚ˇB

I)            Ni faham. Gorɲo wo manti kal Toomare boro no. Gorɲo bumbo manti kal Toomare boro no.

               Look, Gornyo is from Tomare. Gornyo himself is from Tomare.

               ‚í‚Š‚é‚ˁBƒSƒ‹ƒjƒ‡‚Í‚ž‚ˁAƒg[ƒ}ƒŒ‚ĖlŠÔ‚žBƒSƒ‹ƒjƒ‡ŽŠg‚̓g[ƒ}ƒŒ‚ĖlŠÔ‚žB

\\        Ayyo.

               I see.

               ‚Č‚é‚Ų‚ĮB

I)            Ni faham. Naŋ k i da hatta d i keyandi. Ni faham. Gorɲo manti kal Toomare boro no. Amma Gorɲo wo manti kala boro no kaŋ Irkoy na no darja, Irkoy na no, e, me-ciini, me-ciini koyne.

               You understand? The place where they first appeared. You understand? Gornyo is from Tomare. But God gave Gornyo fame. God gave him, letfs see, gverbal words,h gverbal words.h

               ‚í‚Š‚é‚ˁB”Ū‚į‚Ē—§‚ŋ‚ ‚į‚í‚ę‚ŊęŠB‚í‚Š‚é‚ˁBƒSƒ‹ƒjƒ‡‚̓g[ƒ}ƒŒ‚ĖlŠÔ‚žB‚ĩ‚Š‚ĩAƒSƒ‹ƒjƒ‡‚́A_‚Ē”Ū‚Ɂu–ŧēv‚đ—^‚Ļ‚ŊA_‚Ē”Ū‚ɁA‚Ļ‚Ļ‚ƁAuŒû‚ĖŒž—tvAuŒû‚ĖŒž—tv‚đ‚ž‚ËB

K)           Kotte.

               Spells.

               ŽôpB

\\        Ayyo, kotte.

               Oh I see, spells.

               ‚Č‚é‚Ų‚ĮAŽôpB

I)            To. Ga no a ga..., ga no Irkoy na no. Ni faham. To, a ga naaru, ga wo, kaŋ ga wono kotta din te, ni faham, naŋ kaŋ a goro jirbi yoŋ, kul a ga gorokasiney. Ni faham.

               Right. He . . ., no, God gave it to him. You see? Now, he travelled, using spells. You see? He immediately found a wife at a place where he stayed. You see?

               ‚ģ‚¤‚žB‚ģ‚ę‚đ”Ū‚ĒcA‚ģ‚ę‚đ_‚Ē”Ū‚É—^‚Ļ‚ŊB‚í‚Š‚é‚ˁB‚ŗ‚āA”Ū‚Í—ˇ‚đ‚ĩ‚ŊAŽôp‚đŽg‚Á‚āA‚í‚Š‚é‚ˁA‘؍Ũ‚ĩ‚ŊęŠ‚Å”Ū‚Í‚ˇ‚Ž‚É”ē—ĩ‚đ›W‚Á‚ŊB‚í‚Š‚é‚ˁB

\\        Ayyo.

               I see.

               ‚Č‚é‚Ų‚ĮB

I)            Gorɲo wo da tunkey ne-wo Toomare, ni faham, a si koy kal Neyni.

               Gornyo left Tomare, you see, and he first went to Neiny [name of a village].

               ‚ą‚ĖƒSƒ‹ƒjƒ‡‚ą‚ģ‚Ēƒg[ƒ}ƒŒ‚đ”­‚ŋA‚í‚Š‚é‚ˁA‚Ü‚¸ƒlƒCƒjk‘ē–ŧl‚ɍs‚Á‚ŊB

\\        Ayyo.

               I see.

               ‚Č‚é‚Ų‚ĮB

I)            Neyni. Sindeer no a go.

               Neiny in Sinder [name of a canton].

               ƒlƒCƒjBƒXƒBƒ“ƒf[ƒ‹kƒJƒ“ƒgƒ“–ŧl‚É‚ ‚éB

\\        Ayyo. Ay ga a bey. Ay ga a maayo bey

               I see. I know. I recognize the name.

‚Č‚é‚Ų‚ĮB’m‚Á‚Ä‚Ü‚ˇB‚ģ‚Ė–ŧ‚Í’m‚Á‚Ä‚Ü‚ˇB.

I)            Ba a tun Neyni, a ga koy Yuuri. Ni faham. To, Yuuri din mo a bandey go no, gey ti Hammadu Amadu yoŋ.

              Once he left Neiny, he went to Yuuri [name of a village]. You understand? He had descendants in Yuuri as well, including Hanmadou Amadou.

              ƒlƒCƒj‚đ”­‚Â‚ÆA”Ū‚̓†[ƒŠk‘ē–ŧl‚ɍs‚Á‚ŊB‚í‚Š‚é‚ˁBƒ†[ƒŠ‚É‚āA”Ū‚ĖŽq‘ˇ‚Ē‚ĸ‚āA‚ģ‚ę‚Ēƒnƒ“ƒ}ƒhƒDEƒAƒ}ƒhƒD‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚žB

\\       Huhun. Hammadu Amadu. Prmier ministre.

              I see. Hanmadou Amadou. Hefs the Prime Minister.

              ‚Ķ‚ņ‚Ķ‚ņBƒnƒ“ƒ}ƒhƒDEƒAƒ}ƒhƒDBŽņ‘Š‚Å‚ˇ‚ˁB

I)            To, waati kaŋ a ga bisa-bisayoŋo din te, ga no a zumbu Urufa-borey do. Ni faham. A gorkokasiney da, e, Kaabekaarey wo. A gorokasiney da Kaabekaarey, ga ti kaŋ sohoŋ ke, a goro yaamo ne Fuliyande wo. Wo ti sababo kaŋ n a gorandi Fuliyande. Han din koytarey si no.

              Now, after staying there, he visited Urufa borey. You see? He found a wife named, letfs see, Kaabekarey [name of a person]. He married Kaabekarey and this time decided to stay here in Fuliyande. Thatfs how he came to settle in Fuliyande. There was no chief system at that time.

              ‚ŗ‚āA‚ģ‚ą‚ɑ؍Ũ‚ĩ‚ŊŒãA‚ģ‚ę‚Š‚į”Ū‚̓Eƒ‹ƒtƒ@Eƒ{ƒŒƒC‚Ė‚ā‚Æ‚đ–K‚ę‚ŊB‚í‚Š‚é‚ˁB”Ū‚Í”ē—ĩ‚đ›W‚Á‚ŊA‚Ļ‚Ļ‚ƁAƒJ[ƒxƒJ[ƒŒƒCkl–ŧl‚žB”Ū‚̓J[ƒxƒJ[ƒŒƒC‚đ”ē—ĩ‚É›W‚čA‚ģ‚ĩ‚襓x‚́A‚ģ‚Ė‚Ü‚Ü‚ą‚ąƒtƒŠƒAƒ“ƒf‚ɏZ‚Ū‚ą‚Æ‚É‚ĩ‚ŊB‚ģ‚Ė‚¨‚Š‚°‚Å”Ū‚̓tƒŠƒAƒ“ƒf‚É’čZ‚ĩ‚ŊB“–ŽžAŽņ’ˇ§‚Í‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB

\\       Ay faham.

              I understand.

              ‚í‚Š‚č‚Ü‚ˇB

I)            Ay ne koytarey si no han din. Ni faham. Ni faham ay senno se?

               I said there was no chief system. You understand? You understand what I said?

               “–ŽžŽņ’ˇ§‚Ē‚Č‚Š‚Á‚Ŋ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚Ŋ‚Ė‚ž‚æB‚í‚Š‚Á‚Ŋ‚ˁB‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚ĖŒž—t‚Ē‚í‚Š‚é‚ˁB

\\        Ay faham ka boori ya, koytarey si no.

               Yes, I understand well. There was no chief system.

               ‚æ‚­‚í‚Š‚Á‚Ä‚Ü‚ˇBŽņ’ˇ§‚Í‚Č‚Š‚Á‚ŊB

I)            Ay ne koytarey si no han din. Oho. To, hal waati kaŋ cine se no, a go no-din ga goro, a go nga gorokasina din te. Ni faham. Kal waato kaŋ cine se no..., e, annasaarey ka ka koytarey din daŋ. Ni faham wala? *Ay go fonda ra?

:              I said there was no chief system at that time. Hmm. Now, thatfs the kind of time when he settled here and got married. You see? Until that time came . . . well, until whites introduced the position of chief. You see? * [to K.L.] Am I on the right track?

               “–ŽžŽņ’ˇ§‚Í‚Č‚Š‚Á‚Ŋ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚Ŋ‚Ė‚ž‚æB‚¤‚ŪB‚ŗ‚āA‚ģ‚¤‚ĩ‚ŊŽž‘ã‚É”Ū‚Í‚ą‚ą‚É’čZ‚ĩA”ē—ĩ‚đ›W‚Á‚ŊB‚í‚Š‚é‚ˁB‚ģ‚ĖŽž‘ã‚Ē—ˆ‚é‚܂ŁcA‚Ļ‚Ļ‚ƁA”’l‚ĒŽņ’ˇˆĘ‚đ“ą“ü‚ˇ‚é‚Ü‚Å‚žB‚í‚Š‚é‚Š‚ĸB*kK.L.‚ɑ΂ĩ‚āl‰´‚Í“š‚É‚ĸ‚é‚Š‚ĸB

K)           Koy de. Koytara de ir ga,* ir ma to, ir ma to dogo de.

               Go ahead. We are talking about the chief system. * [laughing] We, we, we are almost there.

               s‚¯‚æBŽņ’ˇ§‚Ė˜b‚đ‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĸ‚é‚ņ‚žA*kÎ‚ĸ‚Č‚Ē‚įl‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚ĒA‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚́A‚í‚Ŋ‚ĩ‚Ŋ‚ŋ‚Í‚Ŋ‚Į‚č’…‚ą‚¤‚Æ‚ĩ‚Ä‚ĸ‚éB

I)            To. To, maadulla. To, waato kaŋ cine se no a ga ga wono bisayoŋo te, waato kaŋ a gorokasiney, sohoŋ ke a zumbu Fuliyande. Kaŋ a zumbu Fuliyande, Gorɲogura no a ga goro. Ni faham. No-din no a go, no-din no a go, kala..., e, a na ga wone izey wey hay. Isa, e, fo no i ga ne a se mo, Hiri. Boro Sandaari, boro...

               Good, good. Thatfs right. Now, he stayed, got married, and came to Fuliyande. He came to Fuliyande and settled in Gornyogoula. You see? He was there, he was there, and . . . letfs see, he had ten children. Isa, letfs see, what was his name? Hiri. And that one, Sandaari, and then . . .

               ‚æ‚ĩB‚æ‚ĩA‚ģ‚Ė‚Æ‚¨‚čB‚ŗ‚āA”Ū‚͑؍Ũ‚ĩA”ē—ĩ‚đ›W‚čA‚ą‚¤‚ĩ‚Ä”Ū‚̓tƒŠƒAƒ“ƒf‚đ–K‚ę‚ŊBƒtƒŠƒAƒ“ƒf‚đ–K‚ę‚āAƒSƒ‹ƒjƒ‡ƒOƒ‰[42]‚É’čZ‚ĩ‚ŊB‚í‚Š‚é‚ˁB‚ ‚ģ‚ą‚É‚ĸ‚āA‚ ‚ģ‚ą‚É‚ĸ‚āA‚ģ‚ę‚Š‚įcA‚Ļ‚Ļ‚ƁA”Ū‚Í10lŽq‚đŽY‚ņ‚žBƒCƒTA‚Ļ‚Ļ‚ƁA‚Č‚ņ‚ÆŒž‚Á‚Ŋ‚ŠAƒqƒŠ[43]‚žB‚ģ‚ę‚Æ‚ ‚ĸ‚AƒTƒ“ƒ_[ƒŠ[44]A‚ģ‚ę‚ƁcB

\\       Beybey?

               Beibei.

               ƒxƒCƒxƒC[45]B

I)            Beybey wala?

               Right, Beibei.

               ƒxƒCƒxƒC‚ž‚ȁB

K)           Ayyo.

               Right.

               ‚ģ‚¤‚žB

I)            Maadulla. To, waati kaŋ a naŋ ga izey wey hay, to, wey ne ka ka to ngey boŋ ga, i to gey boŋ. Ni faham. Ga ti kaŋ,e, ayyo. Beybu no, Beegun no jin i se ya.

               All right. Now, he had ten children, and they grew up. You see? And letfs see, right. Beib. Begum was ahead of them.